6个习惯 克服拖延症

  In short procrastination is a habit if you will, a very bad habit, that consists in putting off something for the next day. Procrastination is to blame for most of our productivity problems and yet it seems that very few people actually do something about it. And this doesn’t solely apply to your personal life either, it just as well happens in your career as well, because chances have it you’ll behave the same way at work as well. Missed opportunities, frenzied work hours, stress, overwhelm, resentment, and guilt are just a few consequences.
  简言之,拖拉就是一种习惯,一种坏习惯,把事情推托到以后干是它的主要特征。大多数关于工作效率的问题基本上可以归咎于拖拉的毛病,但是很少人能够对这种毛病实际的做一些努力。 这个毛病并不会只是影响你的个人生活,同样会影响到你的事业,因为一旦有机会,这个毛病也会你在工作中表现出来。错过机遇,加班加点,压力,折磨,抱怨,内疚就是最终一连串的后果。
  I’m pretty sure most of you’ve told yourselves at least once in your life I’ll do it tomorrow, I have the time or tomorrow’s another day. Ok, that’s true, but to paraphrase a common proverb, why put put for tomorrow, what you can do today? It’s safe to say that everybody knows that procrastination is hazardous, but what compels people, like you or myself, to do it? There’s a few reasons why people result to postponements like fear of the unknown, fear of change, perfectionism, fear of failure, disorganization and so on, but probably the most common reason is … laziness. That’s right folks laziness can really be a bugger, some go as far as saying it’s a terrible sickness, I personally think it’s all just a psychological issue.
  我相信大多数的人曾经在生活中不止一次的告诉自己:我明天再做它,我还有时间,或者是明天以后的某个时间。 OK,没错,但我要用一个谚语说明一下:为什么是明天,今天不行吗?(why put put for tomorrow, what you can do today?) 我可以打保票的说,每个人都知道拖拉不好,那究竟是什么让人们,就像你自己,去拖拉呢?有很多原因能导致人们去拖延事情,例如对未知事物的恐惧,害怕改变,完美主义,害怕失败,混乱无序等等,但恐怕最常见的原因却是 … 懒惰。确实如此,懒惰是个不好的毛病,有时候会发展成很严重的问题,我个人认为它完全是个心理上的问题。
  The key to overcoming procrastination is inner strength, inner strength to motivate ourself on completing a task no matter how big or small it is. However most of us lack a particular strength in character and get sucked away from our goals and plans. Do not despair though there are ways to help pass procrastination and eventually get things done.
  克服拖拉毛病的关键是内在意志,用内在意志去激发自己完成一件事情,不管事情大还是小。 但我们大多数都在性格里缺乏这种意志,所以才导致我们离目标和计划越来越远。 不要沮丧,还是有方法能够帮助我们去克服拖拉、最终让我们完成我们的该做任务的。
  1. Take It One Step At a Time  一点一点的做
  Some tasks, at first glance, may seem simply overwhelming or require a Herculean amount of effort, so in term we don’t do anything, at all. It’s important not to let yourself discouraged by any particular amount of work or pressure involved in an activity; what you need to do is start off slow, in small baby steps, in a revere pyramid style and you’ll soon find that things are actually beginning to shape up. For example the other week, I went in with my dad in the garage to clean up the place. There were wrenches, old car oil stench, used car parts, an old refrigerator, a broken TV and a bunch of other useless crap lying all over the place. I didn’t even know where to start from and it all seem like it was gonna take for ever to clean up the mess. My dad soon approached me and told me “there’s no hurry son, there’s no pressure, we’ll just take it one step at a time and see where we get.” We started off with the floor, then with the stocked up drawers and went to more and more difficult task from there on, until around midnight we finally finished. My garage never looked cleaner. This is not only a methodical technique of getting things done, but also a provider or motivation.
  有 些任务,乍一看,感觉是无法实现的,或是需要莫大的努力,于是就导致我们竟然就什么都没做。我们千万不要因为某些工作或压力而气馁,这很重要;我们处理它们的方法应该是逐渐启动,就像小孩学走路时最初的那一小步,采用一种倒金字塔的方法,你很快就能发现事情正在实际的开始有雏形了。 例如,有一个周末,我跟爸爸一起走进车库准备清扫这个地方。扳手,废油,用过的汽车零件到处都是,一个旧冰箱,一个破损的电视,还有一堆其它没用的废物。我真是不知道如何下手,看起来这是个永远不能完成的任务。爸爸很快走过来告诉我:“这里没有什么要紧的事情,没有什么要求,我们只需要每次做一点,然后看看我们都做完了什么。“我们从地板开始,然后是那些放东西的抽屉,然后其他越来越麻烦的事情,这样,直到午夜,我们终于完成了。 我们的车库前所未有的干净。这不仅是一种做事情的技术方法学,也是为人父母和激励人的方法学。
  2. You Don’t Need To “Have To,” You Need To “Want To” 没有“必须做”,只有“想要做”
  If you feel like you “have to” do something you’ll automatically feel a sense of restrainment and negativity, that comes naturally when we’re feeling obliged to do something. This leads to some serious procrastination issues and is most encountered at work. The solution here is to shift your mindset from “have to” to “want to.”Be a firm believer that if you don’t want to do something, then you don’t have to. Simple as that. This might of course have some serious consequences, like loosing your job for instance (in the most extreme cases), but if manage to master the art of avoiding unwanted activities, you won’t have any trouble. There are some unpleasant tasks that we can’t avoid, like work for some (I never could understand why some people would choose to make their living in a field of activity they displease), but even then we can avoid procrastination by tricking our brain. You can do this by finding anything remotely pleasant about what you’re about to do, no matter how small and then think about it all the time, while you pursue the respective unpleasant task. This will cheat your brain into thinking you want to do it, not have to.
  如 果有什么事情是你感觉是“必须”要做的,那么你会不由自主的产生一种消极抵触的情绪,当你感到“被迫”要去做什么事情是自然会产生这种情绪。 这将会导致一些严重的拖拉问题,大部分发生在工作问题上。 解决这个问题的办法是将“必须做”的思想倾向转变成“想要做”。坚信如果你不想做什么事情,你就不必去做它。就这么简单。当然,这也许会导致一些严重的后果,例如立即丢了你的工作(在极端的情况下),但是如果你能掌握如何躲避不想做的事情的艺术时,这种情况就不会发生。有些不令人高兴的事情我们无法避免,例如替别人做事(我一直不明白为什么有些人要生活在他们不满意的行业中),对于这种事情我们可以用欺骗自己的技巧来避免拖拉。 你可以在你将要做的任务中寻找任何值得你高兴的方面,哪怕是一点点,然后你就一直想它,然后再去做那些不高兴的任务。这种方法可以骗过你的心智,让你觉得你想要去做它,而不是必须做。
  3. Brainstorm Your Way Out 走出去想办法
  A common reason for procrastination is lack of ideas, when dealing with any kind of tasks, that mildly requires some creativity. We’ve all had our days of mind blocks or plateaus, it’s actually fairly common, but if this period of blockage is too long, procrastination can settle in. What you need to do is brainstorm. Go outside have a walk and freshen up, observe and analyze everything you see or encounter. Always bring a ben/pencil or a PDA (for those of you more tech savvy) and start taking notes of what you see. Don’t criticize yourself, write down even the most preposterous ideas your mind might produce, you never know when something brilliant might come up.
  导致拖拉的一个常见的原因是没有主意,特别是处理某些需要创造性想法的任务。 我们每人都有思路卡壳和畅通的时候,真是很常见,但是如果思路堵塞的时间太长,拖拉就会发生。 你现在需要做的是脑力激荡。 出去走走,清理一下思想,注意观察和分析你看到和碰到的任何事情。 拿着笔和本子或者一个PDA(这个需要你知道更多的技术知识),开始描述你看到的东西。 不要挑剔,写下甚至是最荒唐的主意,只要是你想到的,因为你永远不知道何时绝妙的想法会突然蹦出了。
  4. Time Yourself 给自己定时
  I’ve found that many people resort to procrastination because they have to much time on their hands and so they put off things for the next hour, day or even weeks. Go to your desk, grab an alarm timer and set it for 10 minutes, 30 minutes or whatever time you believe is necessary to complete your work. Be sure not to leave too much room though, in example this post in normal conditions might take me 2-3 hours to write, I’ve set my timer for 40 minutes. It’s still ticking. This will help you motivate yourself in completing your work, but also most importantly it will help you focus.
  我 发现很多人拖拉的原因是因为他们有太多的时间,所以就可以把事情推托到下一小时,一天,甚至是一周。你应该走的办公桌前,拿起闹钟,设定在10分钟,30分钟或其他你觉得你应该能完成你工作的时间。要确保不能留太多的余地,例如这篇文章在通常的情况下应该会让我花费2-3小时完成,我就把闹钟设置成40分钟闹一次。 它现在仍然在走。这将帮助你激发自己去完成工作,更重要的事情是帮助你集中注意力。
  5. Eliminate All Other Distractions 消除所有干扰
  This means no IM, TV, no e-mail, no internet whatsoever (unplugging your chord would be a good idea), no music (for those of you that find it distractive, I personally can work fine with music in my headphones) or anything remotely distractive, that might break your concentration. Anything that might come between you and whatever task your trying to fulfill may disrupt your current activities and thus lead to procrastination. It’s better to avoid this by eliminating anything that might cause you to suddenly abandon your work. However, be careful. Don’t over exaggerate with this and lock yourself from the outside world, from your family and people that care for you.
  就是让你关掉聊天工具,电视,不要收email,断掉任何网络(最好拔掉网线),关掉音乐(这是针对那些视音乐为干扰的人,对我有个人,我戴着耳麦听音乐感觉良好)以及任何细小的干扰,任何能影响你注意力的事情。 任何能够插入你和你计划要完成的事情中间的事情都会中断你现有的活动,导致拖拉的产生。 所以我们最好通过消除任何可能导致你突然终止工作的干扰因素来避免这种情况的发生。 然而,注意。 不要过分与世隔绝、与你的家人和关心你的人隔绝了。
  6. Stop Being A Perfectionist 停止完美主义
  Another cause of procrastination is perfectionism. It’s natural for us humans to try to be the best at something, but sometimes along the path we can tend to over-react with our ambitions and turn to perfectionism. This way we try complete a task flawlessly from the very beginning, but this takes a lot of work, that in term leads to a lot of stress, which in term leads to procrastination. This is because your brain will soon associate that stress with the respective task and will try to avoid it, most often by postponing it.
  另外一个导致拖拉的因素是完美主义。 努力把事情做到最好是人的天性,但是有时候沿着这条思路我们会产生反应过度的企图,变成了完美主义者。一开始我们就想着要把事情做的完美无缺,但这会需要很多的工作,最终导致很大的压力,于是就导致了拖拉。这是因为你的大脑很快就能把这些任务和这些压力联系到一些,于是产生抵触的意识,常见的做法就是推迟延期。
  It’s important to understand that no one and nothing is perfect. It’s actually the imperfections that make the world around us so beautiful and most of all unique. You can try to write the most complete and helpful article ever or build the perfect software all you won’t, but you’ll never succeed, because there’ll always be room for improvement. Realize that an imperfect job completed today is always superior to the perfect job delayed indefinitely.
  没有完美的人和事物,认识到这一点很重要。 正是因为这不完美才让我们周围这个世界变的如此美丽,如此各具特色。你可能会试图写一篇最完全的最有价值的文章或编写一个最完美的软件,但你永远不会成功,因为什么事情都有可以再改进的空间。你要明白,今天完成的不完美的工作远优于无限期拖延的完美的工作。
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认识拖延症,搞定拖延症!

  你是否做事喜欢磨磨蹭蹭,当天该完成的却拖到明天、后天……直到交任务的最后一刻?你是否遇到过做事拖拖拉拉的人,尝尽等待的焦急滋味?

  别轻视了这些看似不起眼的拖沓行为,美国心理学家约瑟夫·R·法拉利认为,做事拖沓是一种“心”病,称为“拖延症”。

  全世界很多人都有“拖延症”的行为表现。20%的人认为自己是长期拖拉的人,对他们来说拖拉是一种生活方式,这种状态充满了他们的生活。

http://www.tudou.com/v/9iQmmvSIuRc/v.swf


  拖延症的浅层原因有:

  1、太难;

  2、太耗时间;

  3、没有相关知识技能;

  4、害怕别人知道自己做不好。

  深层原因有:

  1、完美主义;

  2、容易退缩;

  3、抵制与敌意;

  4、自我贬低。

  拖延症的其他特点为:

  1、没有自信:因为每次完成任务都达不到自己最高的能力,对自我能力的评估会越来越低;

  2、我太忙:我一直拖着没做是因为我一直很忙;

  3、顽固:你催我也没有用,我准备好了自然会开始做;

  4、操控别人:他们着急也没用,一切都要等我到了才能开始;

  5、对抗压力:因为每天压力很大,所以要做的事情一直被拖下来;

  6、受害者心态:我也不知道自己怎么会这样,别人能做得自己却做!

 


  如何知道自己有拖延症

  从工作清单中挑最不重要的事情做;越重要的工作越拖延得久;在决定静下心来做最重要的事时,还要先跑去冲杯咖啡;总是等待“好心情”或“好时机”去做重要的工作;本来在着手一项工作,一有什么欲望和想法,就抛下手中工作去干下一件……

  其实人人都有拖延的时候,如果这些事情只是偶尔发生一两次,那还算正常,可如果你总是找借口,内心确实不愿意做事,那很可能患了拖延症。

  拖延症的危害

  耽误工作或学业;影响情绪;破坏团队协作和人际关系。它甚至会拖垮身体。德国研究表明,慢性长期的拖延行为,暗示着潜在的心理及生理紊乱。一拖再拖,让他们错过了体检,错过了一些疾病早期治疗的时机。从另一个方面来说,拖延的人自律性不强:这些人通常习惯晚睡,喝酒和吸烟者也更多。同时还伴随失眠、胃部问题,感冒和流感的机会也更高一些。同样,他们即便决定要戒烟、运动、减肥等,也很难迈出实质性的一步。

  拖延是因为没有开始

  加拿大渥太华卡顿大学彼齐尔博士曾经在100名自认为有拖沓问题的公司职员任务期限的最后一周进行跟踪调查。起初这些人说他们有焦虑感和内疚感,因为他们还没有开始做“作业”。不过,一旦他们开始着手做工作,他们便表现出了更多的积极情绪,他们不再悲叹时光流逝,也不会说压力有助于他们工作。

  【克服拖延症七步骤】

  一、分清主次 学会运用二八法则

  1、分类:生活中肯定会有一些突发性和迫不及待要解决的问题。成功者花时间在做最重要,而不是最紧急的事情。把所有工作分成急并重、重但不急、急但不重、不急也不重四类,依次完成。你发每封电子邮件时不一定要字斟句酌,但是呈交老板的计划书就要周详细密了。

  2、分解:把大任务分成小任务。

  二、消除干扰

  关掉QQ,关掉音乐,关掉电视……将一切会影响你工作效率的东西统统关掉,全心全力地去做事情。

  三、互相监督

  找些朋友一起克服这个坏习惯,比单打独斗容易得多。

  四、设定更具体的目标

  如果你的计划是“我要减肥,保持好身段”,那么这个计划很可能流产。但如果你的计划是“我每周三次早上七点起床跑步”,那么这个计划很可能被坚持下来。所以,你不妨把任务划分成一个个可以控制的小目标。当你的家里看起来像一个垃圾站时,让它立刻纤尘不染可能是一件不现实的事,但是花十五分钟把洗手间清洁一下却也不算太难。

  五、不要给自己太长时间

  心理专家弗瓦尔发现,花两年时间完成论文的研究生总能给自己留一点时间放松、休整。那些花三年或者三年以上写论文的人几乎每分钟都在搜集资料和写作。所以,有时候工作时间拖得越长,工作效率越低。

  六、别美化压力

  不要相信像“压力之下必有勇夫”这样的错误说法。你可以列一个设定短期、中期和长期目标的时间表,以避免把什么事情都耽搁到最后一分钟。

  七、寻求专业的帮助

  如果拖沓影响了你的前程,不妨去看看心理医生,认知——行为疗法可

新的CEO需要思考的情商问题

Editor’s note: Christopher Parks is  CEO and founder of change:healthcare. He submitted this story to VentureBeat.)

本文作者Christopher Parks为change:healthcare公司的CEO和创始人。

There has been plenty written about what tools it takes to be a successful entrepreneur, but to date, few have addressed a key factor that’s essential for every start-up CEO – emotional IQ.

在市面上已经有很多很多的研究成功创业者都拥有哪些共同特质的东西。但到目前为止,很少有人讨论存在于每个初创企业CEO身上的关键因素——情商。

Starting a company is a marathon – and it takes not just business-savvy but unyielding perseverance to make it through the tough times. The emotional roller coaster can take a toll on anyone, and no book in the world can tell you exactly what to expect. The best business school training and real-world experience helps, but every potential CEO needs to first assess whether they have the required mental toughness.

开创一个公司就决定了你开始了一场马拉松。这不仅仅需要对于商业的悟性,同样需要在众多的艰难时刻有坚强的毅力。世界上的每个人都不可避免的要发生情感的波动,但是世界上却没有一本书可以精确的告诉你接下来将发生什么。每个潜在的CEO都需要最好的商学院的培训以及有益的真实世界经历的帮助,但他们的第一个拦路虎却是他是否拥有做CEO所需要的意志力。

This short quiz will reveal if you have the emotional skills required to make it through the ups and downs of launching a new company.

这是一个小测验来判断您是否具有情商技能,通过几个指标的起起落落,您就会看到你是否具有创建一个新公司的天分。

True or False: My heart is 110% behind my head.

真或假:我的心是110%的听从我大脑指挥的。

Thinking of an idea and starting a company is the easiest part of the journey. About two years into starting change:healthcare, we had already significantly grown the team, overcome several challenges, evolved (yeah… pivoted) the business model and refocused our efforts away from individuals to the businesses that employed multitudes of individuals.

想到一个好想法和建立一个公司仅仅是这个旅程的最简单部分。在开始change:healthcare的两年时间里,我们的团队已经明显的成长了,克服了很多的挑战,商业模式上实现了进化,而且把我们的个人的努力变成了雇佣多个人的商业实体的运作机制。

I was drained from the combination of customer progress and team growing pains. More than drained, I was devoid of any ability to conjure up the willingness to keep fighting this start-up war. I tossed and turned, then I remembered I wasn’t starting a company because it was cool. Nor was I doing so for the fame or ego boost. I started this journey because of a promise – to myself and my late mother – that couldn’t be broken.

我饱受了和客户打交道以及团队成长的痛苦的折磨,比这些折磨更痛苦的是,我没有任何能力来停止这场创业战争。我辗转反侧,我需要认清自己的使命。我开创这个公司不是因为这个是一个非常酷的事,也不是为了拥有好的名声或者自我提升。我开始创业是因为我的一个诺言——为了我自己和我已经故去的母亲——我不能停下来这个事业。

True or False: I can bend to changes and not break.

真或假:我能接受曲线实现目标,但不能接受中止尝试。

That first world changing, moneymaking idea? It’s wrong. Almost no one gets it “right” from the start. Reality rarely matches initial strategies.

这个想法一开始就能改变世界、挣到大钱,那么这个想法毫无疑问就是错误的。几乎没有一个想法从一开始就是“正确”的。最初的战略很少有能够完全跟现实匹配的。

Sometimes, to arrive at a solution to a problem, you don’t need to look for a different answer, but rather be flexible enough mentally to start asking different questions.

有时候,你为了得到一个难题的解决方案,你不需要去寻找各种不同的答案,而是更灵活的与想着去尝试着去找出各种不同的问题来。

Share the resulting realization with a new Board of Directors who have just invested a lot of money in your current solution can be daunting, but if you’re certain it’s the right decision to adjust focus, you need to stand your ground. That initial realization and willingness to remain flexible in your problem-solving ideas can keep you from disappearing from the face of an evolving competitive market.

把你做事的效果向一个新成立的并且都是投给你很多钱的董事会成员汇报时,你肯定会有些压力,甚至恐惧。但是你经过调整重点而且非常确定这个方向是对的话,那你就一定要坚持你自己的立场。明确最初的愿景辅以灵活的处理问题的方法能够让你避免从激烈的充满竞争并千变万化的市场中败下阵来。

True or False: I do not let my ego get in the way of asking for help.

真或假:不要因为自负而阻断了向别人求助的路径。

Many non-entrepreneurs delude themselves into believing that self-confidence should translate into an over-bearing ego. In reality, most entrepreneurs and leaders actually suffer mental anguish. They are so afraid of failure or unending compromise that they sabotage themselves into mediocrity or attempt to overcompensate in other areas.

许多伪创业者们在认识都在自我欺骗,他们往往认为创业者所谓的自信就是过度自负。事实上,绝大多数的创业者和高管们心理上都处于苦闷状态。他们害怕失败或者无休止的妥协,他们害怕自己会陷入平庸或在别的领域里一无是处。

The reality is that you’re not number one on other peoples’ priority lists. No matter how much you plan, everything will be twice as complicated. The people who act quickly, remain persistent and patient, and are not afraid to make a request, reach the long-term goals needed for success.

事实上,你很难会排在别人优先级列表中的第一位。不管你如何周密的设计你的计划,但每件事基本做起来都会比你的计划复杂两倍。人们需要快速行动,但同时也要坚持和保持耐心,同时也不要害怕面对各种要求,那样才能到长期的目标,从而获得成功。

When I hit roadblocks, I tried to instill my team with a sense of self-confidence by publicly acknowledging the limits of what you know, openly seeking the opportunity to learn what you don’t and asking for the rest. If we hadn’t done this, our business would have failed.

当我遇到阻碍的时候,我总是向我的团队灌输一种理念,让大家有一种自信通过公开承认自己所遇到的问题,并寻求开放性的学习机会,并诚恳的向大家请教解决方法。假如我们不能做到这些,那我们的业务很可能会失败。

Your Score

你的目标

If you answered false to any of the three questions above, I’d take a hard look at your ability to persevere as a start-up CEO. You can have all the financial backing, Ivy League education and shiny “I’m the Boss” coffee mugs in the world, but it may not amount to anything without the emotional IQ to support the ups and downs of entrepreneurship.

如果上面三个问题中有一个问题您的回答是“假”,那对您能否坚持下来做一个好的初创公司的CEO的能力,我将持保留意见。你或许有强大的经济上的支持,常春藤盟校的教育背景和闪亮的“我是老板”的荣誉,但是这些都丝毫无助于提升你支持创业的大起大落的情商。

在IT界取得成功应该知道的10件事

Takeaway: Everyone seems to agree that IT is a tough field. But what does it take to overcome the adversities and become a successful IT pro? These qualities may be the key.

导读:人人似乎都同意IT行业是一个艰难领域,但怎样才能克服逆境,成为一名成功的IT专业人士呢?下文这些特质应该是关键。

I recently wrote a string of articles discussing various reasons to leave IT — and various alternative careers for dissatisfied IT workers. I received an amazing amount of feedback from readers who have always wanted to express similar sentiments. But that leaves out a huge swath of people: those who desperately want a career in IT, as well as those who are caught somewhere in Limbo, trying to answer questions regarding their ability to remain in their chosen field.

So I thought I would go about this topic from another angle to help those people decide whether they’re made up of the stuff necessary for a career in IT. I’m fairly confident everyone agrees it’s a tough field. What everyone may not agree on is what it takes to be a successful IT worker. Let’s see if this list of 10 things fits your qualifications.

1: Thick skin 厚脸皮

Let’s face it. Workers in the IT industry get hit hard, from every direction. If you’re not getting your chops busted by someone insisting you get a job done yesterday, you’re getting torn apart because the client’s QuickBooks data file can’t be recovered. It doesn’t seem to matter how much skill you have. If you can’t take the biting comments and accusations of clients, you won’t make it. Thick skin also helps you get through those periods when you, or your boss, doubts those skills you have. You don’t want to have to leave at the end of the day thinking you have failed at every job you’ve done, just because someone had it in for you that day.

让我们面对现实吧。从各个方面来说,IT业从业人员很难受到欢迎。昨天有人坚持让你完成一项工作,如果你不好好干的话,你将会马上丢掉工作,因为客户的数据文件无法修复。看起来,不管你的技术多么出色,如果你不能容忍客户尖酸刻薄的批评和指责的话,你将无法取得成功。当你自己或者你老板怀疑你的技术时,厚脸皮也会帮你熬过那段艰苦岁月。只是因为那天有人批评或者怀疑你,你用不着在一天工作结束,不得不离开的时候还想着你的每一份工作都做不好吧。

2: Persistence毅力

The IT industry is an ever-changing landscape, and every day a new problem makes itself known. In some cases, those problems don’t ever seem to want to go away. Without the ability to grapple with an issue for extended periods of time, you might find this industry more of a challenge than you care to take on. Viruses will always be an issue. Updates that tank systems will happen with more consistency than you want to deal with. End users will never really understand how computers work. If you don’t have the persistent, stubborn nature necessary to meet these challenges, get out now or you will be beat down daily.
 
 IT行业日新月异,每天都有新问题。在某些情况下,那些问题看起来并不会消失。如果在长时间内没有能力去设法解决问题的话,你会发现,这个行业会有更多的挑战超出了你能力。终端用户永远不会真正明白计算机是如何运作的。如果你没有必要的毅力和倔强去迎接这些挑战的话,现在就离开这个行业吧,不然你每天都会被击垮。

3: Youth朝气

Although I like to think IT is a field not affected by age discrimination, it really is best suited for the younger professionals. There are numerous reasons for this. First, there are the hours. IT often requires far more hours than the usual 9-t0-5 job. When a company goes down, the administrator must respond — and this could easily mean any time of day, night, or week. Those hours add up and (generally speaking) only the younger workers can keep those types of hours up week after week. Add to that the energy required to keep systems and networks up, and it should be obvious the best IT workers tend to fall into that 25 to 45 age range. The good news? Even if you start at the age of 25, there’s a 20-year career waiting for you.

尽管我认为IT业是一个不受年龄差别影响的领域,但它确实最适合更年轻的专业人才。这里有很多方面的原因。首先是时间方面的原因。IT行业通常要求比朝九晚五的工作要长很多的工作时间。当一个公司业绩下滑时,管理者必须做出反应——这可能意味着白天黑夜或者周末的任何时候都得上班。工作时间增加了,一般来说,只有更年轻的的雇员能够一周又一周地忍受在加班的时间继续坚持工作。再加上保持系统和网络的运行也需要能量,显然,最好的IT从业人员处于25到45岁的年龄段之间。好消息是什么?即使你25岁才开始起步,你还有20年的职业生涯。

4: Patience耐心

Users and clients are endlessly frustrating. If you have little or no patience, those people will quickly drive you out of the field. And if they don’t completely drive you away, they will at least drive away your joy for the human race. Without patience, you won’t stand a chance in the IT field. But it’s not only because of the people. Systems will test your patience as well. We’ve all seen the video of the IT admin going ballistic on a PC. It happens. A persistent problem arises and it makes you want to ram your fist down the throat of the PC you’re working on. With enough patience, you will save both your knuckles and your sanity.

用户和客户总是令你很沮丧。如果你缺乏耐心的话,那些人会很快将你从这个行业赶出去。就算他们没有彻底地将你赶走,至少也会打消你做人的乐趣。如果毫无耐心,你就没有希望在IT领域呆下去。但这不仅仅是因为那群人。系统也将考验你的耐性。我们都见过一个IT管理员因为电脑失去理智的视频。一个很费时间的问题出现了,让你很想用拳头让电脑接受你的想法。只有足够的耐心,你的身心才不至于受到伤害。

5: Skills技能

This one should go without saying — but I must mention it. Too many times, you see people hop into the field because they managed to get through the MSCE training. But those certified workers quickly realize their classes only prepared them how to walk through a GUI. In the real world, problems arise that require numerous skills to resolve. The skills necessary to work in the IT field don’t end with the ability to properly configure a domain or Exchange server, they tend to be all inclusive. You never know what you’re going to be required to do on a given day. Think about it this way. When you are seen as an IT administrator, you are not only a specialist in DB administration, you are also a walking help desk who will be asked any and all questions related to work and home computers. And if you don’t have the answers for the right person (at the right time), you might find yourself at the back of the line watching someone else with the answers.

这一点自不用说——但我必须提一下。很多时候,大多数人闯入这个领域,是因为他们设法通过了微软系统工程师认证培训。不过那些认证很快让从业人员意识到他们的等级只是准备好了如何使用图形界面练习。在现实世界中,问题的解决需要运用多种技术。掌握IT领域需要的技能是必要的,这些技能不能以正确配置域名或者Exchange服务器的技能为终点,IT必备的技能似乎无所不包。你永远不知道某一天别人会叫你去干嘛。这样来想一想吧。当别人把你视为IT管理者的时候,你不仅仅是一个数据库管理的专家,你也是一个移动的技术支持,别人会询问你跟办公和家用电脑相关的一切问题。如果你不能在合适的时间为他做出正确的回答,你将会发现自己只能站在别人后面,看着其他人回答问题。

6: The ability to improvise即兴创作

I mean this on many levels. Not only do you need to know how to improvise a conversation. Admit it — there will be times when you’ll have to convince someone that you know exactly what you are doing, even when you don’t. But you will also run into situations where you have to improvise a solution. I have witnessed (and experienced) situations where the prescribed solution simply did not work. When that happens, the only way out is to come up with a solution on your own.

我指的是很多层次。你不仅需要知道如何提高谈话技巧。我认为,很多时候,你必须让别人相信你非常清楚现在所做的事情,即使你不清楚。而且你也会遇到让你不得不临时提供解决方法的情况。我已经见证(经历)过指定的解决方案根本不起作用的情况。当这种情况发生时,唯一的办法就是提出你自己的解决方法。

7: A good sense of PR良好的公关意识

If you’re a consultant, you have to be your own marketing firm. Most solo consultants do not have the budget to hire out their PR work, so they wind up doing it all on their own. This means social networking, building a Web site, writing and submitting advertisements, old-school networking, and much more. If you can’t do this, your business will flounder. When you go into business for yourself, you must know the best routes for marketing in your area. Whether this is TV, radio, social networks, or flyers, you have to have the motivation and skills to handle that aspect of the business. Although word of mouth is the best PR you can get, it still has to begin somewhere.

 如果你是一个顾问,你必须拥有你自己的经销公司。大多数独立的顾问都没有聘请公关业务的预算,所以他们都不得不自己去处理全部事务。这表示社交网络服务、网站建设、撰写和发布广告、守旧的人际网络,以及更多的事务。如果你没办法做这些的话,公司将会将难以为继。当你自己从事商业活动时,你必须知道在你的区域内最好的行销途径。不管这途径是通过电视、广播、社交网络或者是传单,你必须有动力和技术去把握业务的发展方向。尽管口碑是你获得的最好的公共关系,但你还是必须从某个地方开始行动。

8: Connections熟人

This might seem a bit strange, but as a member of the IT field (especially if you’re a solo consultant), you have to have connections in many related and nonrelated industries. For example, you will have customers who need rooms cabled, so you might need someone who can do drywall finishing. You might need to have an electrician in your back pocket. If you don’t have specific skills, you need to know those in the industry who do. The last thing you want to tell a client is that you can’t do something. Instead, you can tell them you will get it done and then subcontract that job. So long as the job gets done and the customer is happy, you will still look good. But if you can’t job something out, and you have to tell the client no, the possibility of that client returning to you grows slimmer and slimmer.

这看起来可能有点奇怪,但作为IT行业的一员(尤其是你是一位独立的顾问),你不得不跟很多有关和无关的产业有熟人。例如,你有一个客户,他需要带有线电视的房间,所以你需要一位能修整墙壁的人,你需要了解业内哪些人会做这项工作。最后,你得跟客户说明哪些事务你做不来。与此相反,你可以告诉他们,你能够办好这件事,然后把这项工作转包出去。只要工作能够完成,客户也满意的话,你的面色看起来也还不错。但如果你无法将工作转包出去,你只能跟客户致歉了,客户以后再来光顾你的可能性就越来越小了。

9: The desire to learn学习的渴望

As I mentioned earlier, IT is an ever-changing industry. The minute a technology is released, it is out of date. So anyone wanting to tackle a career in IT must have a strong desire to learn. You will be challenged on a daily basis to learn something new. If you don’t like learning (be it on your own, with another person, or in a classroom), you should forget about IT. Without the desire to learn, you will quickly fall behind the competition. And believe me, it’s a competitive world out there, especially so with the economy still attempting to recover.

 正如我先前提到的,IT是一个瞬息万变的行业。一种技术一经发布,就已经过时了。所以,无论哪个人想要在IT行业开创一番事业,都必须有强烈的学习欲望。你每天都得迎接挑战去学习新的东西。如果你不想学习(你自己,跟另一个人,或者在教室),你将会忘记IT技术。没有学习的动力,你将会在竞争中掉队。相信我,这是一个充满竞争的世界,特别是经济还在复苏之际。

10: Passion热情

Passion for IT is an intrinsic need for every IT worker. If you don’t love technology and solving problems, IT is not the right field for you. That passion is the intangible thing that will often get you through the day when everything else on this list fails. And a strong passion for IT will also drive most of the other points here far beyond what sheer intelligence and business savvy can manage. After years of working in the field, passion will also help you get up every morning excited for the workday ahead. Without passion, the IT field can quickly become an empty, soulless place.

 对于每一个IT从业人员来说,对IT的热爱是一种内在的需要。如果你不喜欢技术和解决问题,那么IT并不是一个适合你的领域。热情是一种无形的东西,当你所列清单上的所有事情都做不好的时候,它常常能帮你熬过这段时间。对IT的强烈热爱,也会让你的其他大部分特点都遥遥领先,这是纯粹的智商和商业头脑所无法比拟的。当你在IT行业工作了多年之后,热情也会帮你在早上起床之后期待今天的工作。没有热情,IT领域将会成为一个空有外壳没有灵魂的地方。

When it’s right结语

I’ve been pretty hard on the IT industry over the past few months. But ultimately, it is an exciting field to work in. Where else can you play with technology all day, solve problems, and make sure businesses continue to exchange product for currency on a daily basis? But just because you know how to resolve Problem A with Solution X doesn’t mean you are suited for the IT industry. It requires much more than what your local computer science program will teach you. On top of all those Windows, Linux, and Mac skills, you need life, business, and marketing skills (with the added benefit of youth). With all those qualities intact, you are sure to enjoy a long, successful career in the IT field.

过去几个月,我在IT行业处境相当艰难。但最终,在这一行工作令人兴奋。其他地方哪里能让你整天玩技术游戏,解决问题和确保业务每天能不断将产品换取收入?但是,仅仅因为你知道如何用方案X来解决问题A,这并不意味着你就适合IT行业。这一行要求的东西,比你从计算机科学编程中学到的东西还要多很多。比起所有那些Windows、Linux和Mac技术,更重要的是,你需要生活,业务和销售技巧(另外再加上年轻的优势)。拥有所有那些完整的特质,你肯定能在IT行业享受一段长期成功的职业生涯。

陈佩斯:一个男人离开体制也要能活

    人们惋惜陈佩斯失去了春晚这个平台,陈佩斯却庆幸他离开了名利场;人们遗憾陈佩斯不是一名合格的创业家,陈佩斯却坚持他守住了做人的底限……十年相争,其间取舍得失,妥协与硬扛,得到与失去,不一而足。然而人这一生,岂能任由他人妄自评判对错?再过三年,陈佩斯就六十岁了。时间跑得真快。 北京亚运村附近的某处居民楼,两套加起来将近三百平方米的单元房,是他的大道文化所在地。记者到访时,门口的保安并未过多纠缠,就高高扬起手臂,向着身后那幢白色大楼指了指。 ——若从注册时间算起,大道公司已经成立整整20年了。这是大陆最早一家集影视制作、发行于一体的民营影视公司。20年,本土文化产业已从孤峰独立,走到了层峦叠嶂。即便盘子依旧不大。 若从销售效益上比较,后起者如赵本山的本山传媒、王潮歌的印象创新艺术有限公司,都比“大道”玩得生猛。但这并未影响陈佩斯在话剧行当的修行。

    他离开大银幕14年,离开春晚13年,从某种意义上说,“消失”反而起了加分的作用。譬如,我们通过《商界》官方微博即时发布对陈的采访情况,一千多条转发中几乎没有负面评论。这很罕见。 他是舞台上的喜剧之王,成就他的却是舞台下的种种悲剧色彩。他说,“一个男人,离开体制也要能活。”于是,跟央视打官司,叫板中国电影体制,圈里人因此说,陈佩斯说翻脸就翻脸。事实上,陈佩斯始终在与大众眼中的陈佩斯相斗争。这十年,名利渐行渐远,他的消失甚至被外界谣传为这般路径:打官司被央视封杀,拍电影遭遇偷票房,儿子学费都交不起,最终夫妇俩上山种石榴两年,获利30万元,继而投资话剧东山再起。东山再起,似乎是我们这个民族所特有的一种情结。就像褚时健当年被保外就医,随后在家乡的哀牢山上种植柑桔,人们总是希望他能重振河山。但褚时健毕竟有他自己的世界,陈佩斯也没有自己的哀牢山。 这十年,无论陈佩斯还是褚时健,他们都只是按照自己的思维方式去活,去生活,就像当年把陈佩斯送到央视对立面去的,也正是陈佩斯本人。即便“敌人”真的存在,对他们来说,这个敌人也仅仅是大众的眼光而已。

    那么,陈佩斯的体制外创业真的一路坎坷?春晚式的名利喧嚷真的结束了吗?  外人质疑、惋惜。但对陈佩斯而言,或许这真的结束了/如今,陈佩斯的花白胡子比光头形象更加打眼。他的上一次发飙是在十年以前。重拾那段记忆,或许正是理解陈佩斯这十年抉择的一把钥匙。 1991年,陈注册成立海南喜剧制作有限公司,任职董事长兼总经理。两年后,他把公司改名为“大道影业公司”,专注于喜剧电影。彼时,陈老板为拥有了自由创作空间而志得意满,他再也不用揣着剧本到处求人了。 然而,7年出品六部电影、一部电视剧,他的投入是倾家荡产式的,回报却很惨淡。每一部电影都不亏损,但赚的钱只够启动下一部电影的前期,时常断裂的资金链让陈佩斯欲哭无泪。他回忆说:“当时孩子的学费百十来块钱,不是说天天没有,就是有几个月特别紧,而且一紧就会紧很长时间。那时候,自己的车公司用,自己出门打车都不敢打夏利,只能找面包车。” 很难想象少年成名的陈佩斯会在中年遭遇如此窘境。他在适应从单纯的演员到创业者的身份转变,“每天都在妥协”。“好演员只要演好戏就行了,但是作为好老板,剧组缺什么就得补什么。有时拍戏缺一辆坦克,你都得找关系托人去借啊。”如果说,借坦克、借飞机欠下哥们人情,陈佩斯可以妥协;但自己所在的行业欠一个公正,陈佩斯就按捺不住了。“我们这种民营电影公司要自己跑发行,前一晚喝酒要多少拷贝对方答应得好好的,第二天酒一醒都不认了。”“你可以查查,当年我们的几部电影口碑都很好,但影院总说上座率不高。比如《太后吉祥》,我去石家庄监票,当地的红星剧场每天7场满座,但影院却只跟我报三场。这不是欺负人嘛。” 1997年,大道的《好汉三条半》与冯小刚的《甲方乙方》同时上映。《好汉》起势凌厉却在几天后被主流院线撤下,“原因是《甲方乙方》的投资发行都是他们的人”。 ——陈佩斯彻底绝望了。 事实上,大道的7年电影征程恰逢这个行业最为混沌动荡的一段岁月。从统购统销到各省市分销、进口大片涌入、盗版盛行再加上各大影院的票房潜规则,陈佩斯很难从中杀出血路。周围人说,“陈佩斯属于典型的一根筋,他可以为表演砸锅卖铁,却不肯对游戏规则来半点妥协。”最终,“一根筋”的陈佩斯选择了离开,“再也不想被盘剥了”。

    2011年春节,朱时茂的《戒烟不戒酒》本是为陈佩斯量身打造的,但陈坚持不肯回归电影。新片发布会上,他送给朱时茂一坛十年陈酿。朱时茂说,“认识佩斯这么多年,他就送过我这一回礼物。” 陈佩斯则对记者说,“一路走来,老天把所有道都给我堵死了。电影给我堵死了,春晚也给堵死了,而我的喜剧实践又不能停。喜剧表演对于我来说,是我生命的一部分。你得活着,活着又总得做点什么。” 事实上,相比电影,外界对陈佩斯命运的嗟叹更多来自于春晚的“封杀”。但对陈佩斯而言,这种离开并非遗憾,反而是一种保全。

旧十年  在很多人记忆深处,他依旧是那个每年除夕出现在春晚舞台的“陈小二”。 对于那场被外界视作人生滑铁卢的官司有没有后悔?陈佩斯对记者说,“我要感谢那场官司,这让我终于从名利场退了下来。我那么多年在上面苦苦挣扎退不下来,大众需要在春节快乐,这反而成了我对大众的一种责任,这么大的责任谁担着都痛苦,我早就想退了。” “因为著作权,我们跟中央台争,一直到最后我们不被邀请,这反而是个机遇。当春晚逐渐成为一个利益平衡舞台,这种放弃意味着真正的解脱。” ——1984年,陈佩斯通过《吃面》,在中国开创了小品这种独特的喜剧表演形式。此后十四年,他相继为春晚舞台贡献了15个小品。小品就此登上大雅之堂。用陈佩斯的话说,其实大道公司当时的主要精力在于电影,每年只是抽出一段时间为春晚准备小品,但观众最终还是将他定格在了一名小品演员。1999年,春晚排练前,他要求导演在小品中使用高科技魔术和电影蒙太奇手法,求新求变,但导演不同意。最终,陈佩斯以“观念存在冲突”为由,说服朱时茂,退出了当年的春节联欢晚会——不妥协隐隐出现。 不久,陈佩斯发现央视下属的中国国际电视总公司擅自出版发行了内容为自己的《吃面》、《警察与小偷》等8个小品的vcd光盘。双方对簿公堂。最终,中国国际电视总公司败诉。 此事一经报道,旋即引发了“央视封杀风波”。几乎一夜之间,许多演出单位和电视台不再追捧他,他再也没有接到与广电系统有关的演出邀请。这种悲情在外界看来不言而喻。时至2011年春晚期间,网络上发起个调查,结论是对陈佩斯重新上春晚呼声最高。于是便有了记者与陈佩斯如下一场对话。 陈:“这事我知道。”记者:“那还上吗?”陈:“不会上了,都过去的事了。”记者:“春晚能让你再火一把。”陈佩斯:“那又怎么样呢?这个社会评价人的标准就是名利。但你不能侮辱你自己的人格,它盗你的版权,然而你为了出名还要去依附它。人不能永远趋利避害吧? ——我们相信这般表述发自内心。同样站在创作者的角度,我们理解陈佩斯的痛苦。这个时代,让人笑比让人哭更难,更何况笑里面还要有观点。陈佩斯的小品第一不抄袭,不从网络上扒“包袱”,第二不拿农民工、残疾人开涮。从《主角与配角》到《警察与小偷》他都在以榨干自己的方式来展现小人物的喜怒哀乐。 陈佩斯在痛苦创作,周围人同样跟着倒霉。他很邋遢,又很健忘,晚上写剧本晚了,衣服不脱便倒在床上打呼噜,剧本一页一页写到哪儿扔到哪儿,这时必须有人时刻跟在后面收拾整理,否则第二天他自己都不知道写的是什么了。朱时茂的一段回忆可以佐证这种痛苦,“佩斯天天熬夜写本子,写得老厚老厚的。我还以为是用毛笔写的。剧本里好多东西我有意见,要修改,他性子又倔,闹僵了就只有靠彼此的太太来做和事老。”

    事实上2000年左右,的确是陈佩斯与大众眼中的陈佩斯交战最为激烈的时刻。 外界认为陈损失了名利,陈佩斯却认为他终于退出了名利场;外界惋惜陈佩斯失去了春晚这个能让人一夜红透的平台,陈佩斯却庆幸他坚守了自己作为演员的人格……其间取与舍、得与失、对与错,妥协与硬扛,挣扎与痛苦,不一而足——人这一生,到底应该为谁而活呢? 同样在这一时期,陈佩斯的父亲陈强突然中风入院。万幸,他父亲的身体逐步好转,自那以后陈佩斯搬出自己的房子,和父母楼上楼下住到一块儿。陈强今年94岁,洗澡之类的生活琐事全由陈佩斯一力承担。陈佩斯说,对于父亲,对于孩子,他没有遗憾。

What is the Preferred Operating Systems of Designers?设计者更喜欢什么操作系统

The ever-changing culture of web design has grown into a wild array of sub-standards. Over 20 years now designers from all over the world have contributed their brilliant ideas to the World Wide Web. Software is often an afterthought from the consumer’s end, but when you’re at the front lines this topic is very important.

日新月异的网页设计文化现在已经成长为一系列的子标准。网页设计文化发展20年之后的现在,世界各地的设计者都在将自己的好想法用在万维网上。软件通常是根据用户的需要而产生的,但如果你工作在(网页设计)第一线,这个话题就对你很重要了。

In the realm of Operating Systems it breaks down into 3 core groups: Windows, Mac OS X, and various Linux packages. For the sake of this article we’ll be focusing on Windows and Mac implementations. That’s not to say Linux (especially Ubuntu) can’t be used for graphics and web design – but it’s certainly not within the majority of market shares as its two rivals.

在操作系统领域,有三种系统是应用的比较多的:Windows系统、Mac OS X系统以及各种Linux发行版。对于本文,我们将专注于讨论Windows系统和Mac系统的应用。这并不是说Linux系统(尤其是Ubuntu系 统)不能用在图形和网页设计中。只是因为和Windows系统和Mac系统比起来,它只占操作系统市场份额的很小一部分。

Easy User Experience舒适的用户体验

Both Microsoft and Apple have released astounding advancements into their latest Operating Systems. Windows 7 boasts an incredible new taskbar and updates on many of the UI elements where Vista failed miserably. Similarly Mac OS X Snow Leopard has exposed Apple’s soft creative underbelly.

微软和苹果公司都在他们最新的操作系统中应用了它们令人吃惊的先进技术。Windows 7系统具有令人难以置信的、全新的任务栏,很多UI元素也得到了更新,这一点是Vista系统望尘莫及的。类似地,Mac OS X Snow Leopard系统也毫无疑问地展示出了苹果公司软件的创造力。

With this latest version we see client support for tasks such as exposé. This feature is a refined view control offering thumbnails for photos and video files within explorer. Also some great additions to system processes to increase bootup and shut-down speeds!

有了这些最新版本的操作系统,我们看到客户端能够支持一些如exposé的任务。它可以实现精简的视图控制功能,在资源管理器中给图片和视频文件提供缩略图。系统处理中也添加进了很多东西以增加启动和关闭速度。

As both companies have so much to offer their userbase you may understand how deep this rivalry goes. When polling from various forums about personal choice in Operating System the results are, for the most part, unpredictable. Everything comes down to personal choice.

从这两家公司给用户群提供如此多的新功能,你或许能理解竞争已经深入到了什么程度。通过各种论坛,对个人选择使用什么操作系统进行调查,最终结果多半是不确定的。一切都归结于个人的选择。

Generally if a digital artist grew up using Windows XP he may find Windows 7 a more comfortable transition. This isn’t always the case since many artists break out into OS X and find the controls much more suitable.

一般来说,如果一个数字艺术家是使用Windows XP系统长大的,他们可能会发现Windows 7将是一个更舒适的(操作系统)发展方向。事实并非总是如此,因为很多艺术家会转而使用OS X系统并且发现该系统的控制功能更加方便。

Tasks and Required Software任务和所需软件

When examining into such a dualism we must look at the potential work environment, even past the Operating System. What software is going to be required to get your work done?

当涉及到这样一个二选一问题时,我们必须着眼于可能的工作环境,甚至要考虑操作系统这个环境之外的因素。为了完成工作,需要什么样的软件呢?

Mac OS X and Windows 7 do support most of the same core software suites. Although there are plenty of differences between just for Mac and PC only software, the digital age is versatile. For designers and illustrators the Adobe Creative Suite will prove the most useful item in their toolbox. Software is available for both OS choices and includes such popular items as Adobe Photoshop, Fireworks, Illustrator, Flash, and After Effects.

尽管针对Mac和PC机的设计软件存在很大的差别,Mac OS X和Windows 7系统却能支持大部分的、具有相同核心的软件套装。数字化时代中很多东西是通用的。对于设计者和插图画家来说,在他们的工具箱中,他们会发现Adobe Creative Suite是最有用的工具。很多软件对于两种系统来说都是可用的,这包括一些热门的软件:Adobe Photoshop, Fireworks, Illustrator, Flash, 以及After Effects。

For Windows there is an alternative application very popular among open-sourcers. GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) has been around for years and runs many of the similiar features as Photoshop.

对于Windows系统,有一种可供选择的应用在开源社区很受欢迎。 GIMP(GNU Image Manipulation Program)已经出现很多年了且具有很多与Photoshop相似的功能。

The work area looks much different and you also don’t have access to the advanced filters from Adobe Labs. However for those on a tight budget GIMP comes with no price tag! It’s perfect for creating small graphics and resizing photos for the web.

工作区看起来很不一样,而且你也没办法从Adobe Labs处获得先进的滤镜。然而对于那些预算很吃紧的人,GIMP是免费的!当在为网页创建小图片和调整图片尺寸时,它将是一个很不错的选择。

The Working Web Developer网页开发工作

Web Design incorporates many aspects behind the curtain. Digital art, icons, graphics, and layout wireframes are all very important aspects. But without any HTML/CSS code you won’t be getting anything live online!

网页的幕后设计整合了很多方面。数字艺术、图标、图形以及布局框架都是很其中很重要的方面。但如果没有HTML/CSS代码,你将不能使任何在线的东西动起来!

Along with graphics suites Adobe also offers a web developers software IDE(Integrated Development Environment) titled Dreamweaver. You can work on any plaintext file such as HTML, PHP, SQL, CSS, JavaScript, or anything you may think of! Dreamweaver comes bundled with a host of additional features such as page templates, which allow for easy duplication of pages and content.

除了图形套装,Adobe还能为网页开发者提供开发软件IDE——Dreamweaver。你可以用它来编辑任何纯文本文件,包括HTML, PHP, SQL, CSS, JavaScript以及其它你能想出来的任何文件。Dreamweaver还有其它很多功能,如页面模板,该功能使你轻松的重用页面和内容。

Development over both Windows and Mac OS X offer individual packages for Adobe Dreamweaver. The program runs exactly the same in both environments and offers a very stable solution for programming. If you don’t have money to shell out luckily there are plenty of alternatives.

针对Windows 和 Mac OS X系统的开发使Adobe Dreamweaver对每个系统单独提供了软件包。该程序在两种环境下运行情况是一样的,并且为编程提供了一个很稳定的解决方案。如果你没有足够的钱来 支付这些软件包,幸运的是,你还有很多其它的选择余地。

Having previously developed over Mac OS X many web designers I’ve asked have concurredPanic’s Coda is by far the best option for text editing. It includes code highlighting for the most popular languages and offers self-help documentation within the program!

我问过很多在Mac OS X系统下开发过网页的设计者,他们一致同意:迄今为止, Panic’s Coda是进行文本编辑的最佳选择。它具有对最流行编程语言的代码高亮功能,并提供程序内置的帮助文档。

If you’re developing for iOS mobile apps XCode 4 is a much better solution. This has native support for Objective-C and the Cocoa library which is included for all apps at runtime. Apple provides exceptional documentation on the language so it’s brutally simple to comprehend and build something great.

如果你正在为手机操作系统iOS开发应用程序,XCode 4是一个更好的解决方案。它原生支持所有app在运行时都要用到的Objective-C 和Cocoa库。苹果公司为这些语言提供了特有的文档,所以它是非常容易理解的,利用它可以开发出很多伟大的东西。

All Windows Development纯Windows开发

If you’re looking to the simpler side Windows has tons of freeware solutions. All the way from XP to Win7 there are tens of hundreds of open-source projects for code junkies. ProminentlyNotepad++ is widely spoken of from frontend and backend developers alike.

如果你力求简单,在Windows系统下有无数免费的解决方案。从XP到Win7系统的发展过程中有数以万计的、代码迷们可以获得的开源项目。此时,网页前端和后端开发者们都提到了比较好的方案: Notepad++

It’s a free download and comes with some great features you don’t find in other applications. Tabbed browsing for editing multiple documents within a single window, also a library of 50+ languages for syntax highlighting.

它可以免费下载,并且具有一些在其它应用中找不到的好功能。可以在单独的一个窗口,通过翻页浏览对复杂的文档进行编辑,并包括一个能对50多种语言进行语法高亮的库。

If you’re looking for professional options a bit cheaper than Dreamweaver I highly recommendphpDesigner 7 for Windows. Don’t let the name fool you – although the package specializes in PHP it offers code highlighting for all web documents including HTML and JavaScript.

如果你正在寻找比Dreamweaver便宜很多的专业设计方法。我强烈推荐针对Windows的 phpDesigner 7。不要让它的名字欺骗了你。尽管软件包是针对PHP的,但它对所有网页代码文件提供了代码高亮功能,包括HTML和JavaScript语言。

What’s so great about phpDesigner is how integrated the software becomes. You are able to run a local server directly from the application window for testing PHP code. The IDE will also mark read errors with a red “X” at the end of a line of code. This feature is not found in anywhere Dreamweaver and has saved me hours of tirelessly searching and fixing bugs in my programs.

phpDesigner的强大之处在于软件得到了很好的整合。你可以直接通过应用窗口,运用本地服务器对PHP代码进行测试。IDE也会在代码的最 后一行用一个红“X”标记出错误。这种特点在Dreamweaver的任何地方都发现不了,这种功能节省了我很多时间,使我不用再不知疲倦地寻找和修补程 序中的漏洞。

Conclusion结论

The investigation of digital Operating Systems could also include a comparison of features such as document processing, alternative web browsers, and FTP software. However these are all minor accessories. Truly the choice is yours and comes down to personal opinion and comfort.

对数字操作系统的调查也可以包括以下这些方面的对比:文档的处理、可供选择的网页浏览器以及FTP软件。然而,这些都是次要部分。最终如何选择在你自己,更归结为个人的意见和舒适性。

If you are more satisfied working on a Macintosh then absolutely stick with it! Generally graphics designers and video editors enjoy the simple controls allowed within the Mac Unix-like OS. At the other end of the spectrum I have found many developers enjoy the freedoms and administrative control in Windows, allowing for easy file manipulation and installation of local web server(s) and databases.

如果你更喜欢用Macintosh工作,那么你完全可以一直用它。一般来说,图形设计者和视频编辑者都喜欢用Mac Unix-like OS系统,因为该系统中很多控制更简单。另一方面,我发现很多开发者喜欢用更自由和有管理员权限控制的Windows系统,它在文件操作和本地网页服务器 和数据库的安装等方面都更方便。

简析 iOS 程序图标的设计

程序图标主要作用是为了使该程序更加具象及更容易理解,除了上述的作用外,有更好视觉效果的图标可以提高产品的整体体验和品牌,可引起用户的关注和下载,激发起用户点击的欲望。

表现形态

在有限的空间里表达出相对应的信息,在iOS 程序图标设计中,直观是第一个解决的问题,不应该出现大多繁琐的修饰,当然还要有很好的视觉表现力,使用户可以更容易理解此应用的实际作用,更轻松地辨识此应用。下面来说说几种表现的形态。

图形表现

在只用图形表现应用程序的用途,图形可以很好地吸引用户的眼球,更具象地表现出信息。

文字表述

文字表现是一种非常直观的表现方法,文字应该简洁明了,不繁琐。

图形和文字结合

此形式有很好的表现力之余还可以直接把信息告知用户,因为会有一定的内容,所以在空间布局上要注意疏密,避免繁琐拥挤。

iOS 程序图标特性

iOS系统桌面图标与其他移动系统的图标存在非常大的区别,因为iOS图标有很好的整体性,良好的整体性可以减少用户体验上带来的冲突,所以我们需要保持其中的一些特点,以便程序可以更好融入系统中,带给用户更好的应用体验。

尺寸

在不同设备的iOS系统桌面中,程序图标的尺寸和默认自带的修饰效果会有不同,系统默认自带的修饰效果可以使图标更好保持iOS风格,但很多时候为了实际效果,我们可以要求系统不作部分效果的添加,以便达到我们想要的效果

上传到App Store需要512px X 512px的图片

在iPhone  960px X 640px分辨率中
图标显示尺寸 114px X 114px
20像素的圆角
4像素的90度黑色投影
2像素的90度白色内投影
默认自带的高光

在iPhone  480px X 320px分辨率中
图标显示尺寸 57px X 57px
10像素的圆角
2像素的90度黑色投影
1像素的90度白色内投影
默认自带的高光

在iPad  1024px X 768px分辨率中
图标显示尺寸 72px X 72px
13像素的圆角
2像素的90度黑色投影
1像素的90度白色内投影
默认自带的高光

质感

在iOS中,为表现图标的质感,很多时候都会为其添加一些光感,使其更有质感。光是从上面来的,所以过渡颜色的渐变应该是从上往下的。很多时候为表现iOS系统类似玻璃质感般的感觉,图标底部都会带有一个亮度较高的反光,当然这些都是以我们想要的实际效果而绘制添加。


iOS 程序图标设计的构思

为表达好应用程序的作用,我们可以将应用程序的图标作很多不同视觉效果的处理,以达到更好的视觉享受。不同类型的应用要注意表现的效果,如新闻资讯类的应该简洁一点,使其应用有更好的整洁的感觉,如游戏类可以设计得给用户一种活跃的感觉,如一些日常应用类的我们很多时都会将其拟物化,使用户更直观地感受到其作用,这种方法是我们最常见的。

在这里着重说一下拟物化程序图标,这是非常具象去表现程序用途的方法,但有时候要表现的元素存在几个的时候,在狭小的空间中不一定能放下如此多的元素,所以要分析轻重,轻的可以减少占据位置的比例或者将其去除,重的要多作强调,同时,要找到多样元素中的共性。

我们只需找到共性,就能构想出不错的创意。

在图形的构思上有时我们可以利用iOS图标的圆角制作一些特殊的感觉效果处理,如立体感,这些可以帮助图标有更好的视觉冲击力,更容易获取用户的喜爱与点击。

实践分享

说了这么多,下面我们马上来从零开始构思和绘制精美的iOS应用程序图标。

程序名称:MyRange
平台:iPhone
版本:V0.001
出版商:UEDC
用途:LOMO拍照软件

首先说明的是,设计的方法不是唯一的,构思和绘制的方法也是无限多的,那么马上开始!

想到拍照软件,首先会想起的是相机,那么相对应这个软件的图标可以绘制一个LOMO相机作尝试。

很多时我们为了使绘制的物品视觉效果更好,我们需要一些参照物,这次我用莱卡M9来做参照物。在参照物得基础上,进行更多个性化的处理。

为了视觉效果更好,我想其有一点透视的感觉,那么可以利用iOS图标圆角的特征,形成一种立体的感觉。

之后给图标上色,将各大部分大致的颜色分出来

绘制出各部分的质感,应有的皮质和金属的质感,制造金属的可以添加一点杂色

加强光感,光是从90度向下照的,绘制出该有的反光位和两边的过渡转折位,镜头部分局部细致刻画,最后整体调整,完成!