[PG]跟专业摄影师学用光──五条高级摄影用光技巧

Nature’s Lighting Starter Kit: The Sun

一、自然界入门照明工具:太阳


Photography’s most basic lighting option, the sun, is also one of the most versatile. It can be bright and hard or dim and soft. It can be warm and highly directional, casting long shadows. Or, behind clouds, its light can be blue, diffuse, and shadow-free. As it crosses the sky, the sun serves as a front-, side-, back-, and/or hair-light. It always looks natural (because it is), and it’s always free. Cheyenne Ellis, an L.A.-based celebrity portraitist and advertising pro, used only the sun and a reflector to light this shot of Halle Berry made to promote Berry’s fragrance, Halle. Images from the shoot have appeared in US Weekly, Harper’s Bazaar, and Shape magazines. You would think for such a high-profile project, Ellis would show up with more than a camera and a shiny $47 disk.

        阳光是摄影师最基本也是最常用到的光源。它时而明亮强烈,时而黯淡柔和;色调有时温暖,有时冷峻;有时笔直照射,能制造长长的影子,也有时被乌云遮挡而发生漫射,不会留下任何阴影。随着太阳东升西落,阳光能够做主光、侧光、背光和发光(此处的“发光”是指专门打亮头发的光源。译者注)。阳光看起来非常自然(因为他就是自然),而且永远免费。

        Cheyenne Ellis是一位拍摄名人肖像和广告作品的洛杉矶专业摄影师,上面那张照片是她为著名演员哈莉·贝瑞拍摄的系列作品中的一张,在拍摄这张肖像时他只使用了阳光和反光板打光。该系列作品曾被“US Weekly”、“Harper’s Bazaar ”和“Shape”等杂志刊登。你可能会觉得在这样一个高调的拍摄项目中,摄影师Ellis一定不会只拿着一部相机和一个价值47美元的反光板去拍摄。

But, sunlight and a reflector are among her favorite lighting combinations. Her website, http://www.cheyenneellis.com, overflows with natural light. “I like the simplicity and flexibility of the reflector, and the shaping it brings out,” she says. “I rarely use a reflector aimed directly at a subject, though—too harsh. Instead, I feather it, making sure the reflection in the eyes is beautiful. It helped that the sand here acted as a giant fill card!” 

        但是,阳光和反光板却是摄影师Ellis最喜欢的组合,她个人网站上展示的作品中洋溢着自然的光线。“我喜欢反光板的简单和灵活,以及它带来的风格”,她说,“我很少把反光板直接对着被摄人,因为这样光线太强烈。相反,我会将光线‘羽化’,确保被摄人的眼眸中有漂亮的反光。这张照片中的沙滩就像一个巨大的补光板,帮了很大的忙。”

Cheyenne Ellis devised a clever way to deploy her 20-inch Flexfill Silver/White reflector ($47, street), without an assistant. Seated, she held it in her lap and aimed it with her forearms while shooting!


        Cheyenne Ellis设计了一个巧妙的方法,能够在不需要助手的情况下使用20英寸银/白色反光板:她坐下,将反光板放在腿上,在拍摄的同时用小臂调整反光板的方向。(如图所示)

Mixing Daylight And Strobe

二、日光和影室灯的融合


Justin and Colleen Picciotti make up Dyad Photography, a Brooklyn, NY-based commercial and fine-art photography studio. For a personal project centered on food, the couple started with iconic images and took them in surprising directions. The result, on view at www. dyadphotography.com, is a series of images that at first seem to be conventional representations of food-in-motion, shot with stopaction techniques. Then you look more closely and do a double take. What you see are sometimes alarming, sometimes humorous pictures of food that flout photographers’ usual attempts at suggesting the three-dimensionality of their subjects.

        “Dyad摄影”是位于纽约市布鲁克林区的一家摄影工作室,由摄影师Justin和Colleen Picciotti组建,主要拍摄商业和艺术作品。两人曾拍摄过一个以食物为主题的私人项目,他们从拍摄符号性的图像开始将这个项目引向了令人惊讶的方向。该项目的作品展示在他们的网站上(www. dyadphotography.com[需翻墙,译者注]),这些作品乍一看是采用定格技术拍摄的“动态食物”,像是传统的展示图片。但如果你仔细观看,就会恍然大悟。你看到的作品有些令人震惊,有些令人捧腹,但这些关于食物的作品都根本不强调物体的三维性,而这正是其它摄影师试图在自己作品中突出的。

These images are flagrantly, almost transgressively two-dimensional. How do the Piciottis do it? As with most things studio, lighting played a crucial role. The painstakingly styled spaghetti and meatballs on the opposite page actually sits on top of a print of their photo of a table, chair, floor, and (clean) place setting. In order to fool your eye into seeing the scene as a single image, the lighting for the “room set” and the pasta had to almost match in color temperature and intensity— not necessarily easy because the table was lit by window light and the spaghetti by strobe.

        这些作品是千真万确的、甚至是反传统的二维图像。摄影师Piciottis是如何拍摄的呢?正如大多数影室作品一样,用光发挥了至关重要的作用。上面那张作品中精心制作的意大利面条和肉丸下面的桌椅、地板和餐具实际上打印出来的照片,而不是实物。为了欺骗视觉,让这个场景看起来像是一次拍摄的照片,在“房间设施”和意大利面用光的色温和密度上必须一致。但这可不容易,因为桌面的光线来自窗户,而意大利面的光线则来自影室灯。

Lighting, however, also helped clue viewers in to the fact that this picture wasn’t business as usual. For example, the Picciottis intentionally lit the pasta from the opposite direction of the window light falling on the table setting. “We chose the mixture of light sources with different orientations to help accentuate the play on perspective,” explains Colleen.

        不过作品的用光也让观者注意到这些不是平常的商业图片。例如,摄影师Picciottis故意从落在桌面光线的反方向上向面条打光,他解释说:“我们选择将不同方向上的光源结合起来,这能突出对透视的控制”。

To make the spaghetti pop off the cooler background, they intentionally lit it with a slightly warmer light than the window light in the base image.

        为了在色调较冷的背景中凸显意大利面,摄影师们选择了比背景光线色调略暖的灯光。

It took several hours to shoot and then print the base image. The photographers used white and silver reflectors and black flags to equalize light levels across the table, chair, and floor. They suspended their camera, a Hasselblad 501 with a Leaf Aptus 75 digital back and 50mm f/4 Carl Zeiss lens, over the table.

        摄影师们花费了数小时拍摄和打印桌面照片,他们采用白色/银色反光板和黑旗(black flag)使桌面、椅子和地板的光线层次保持一致。拍摄时他们将装有利图Aptus75数码后背的哈苏501相机悬挂在桌子上方,镜头则是50mm f/4卡尔·蔡司镜头。

When printing the base image on an Epson Stylus Photo R2400, the Picciottis used matte paper to minimize the chance of glare resulting from the strobe’s output during the second exposure.

        拍摄好的桌面照片用爱普生Stylus Photo R2400型打印机打印,摄影师Piciottis选用了亚光纸,这是为了避免相纸在二次拍摄中出现反光。

After styling the spaghetti, they lit the whole set with a white beauty dish whose broad, soft illumination simulated windowlight. “One of the tricks to lighting food is to use a more directional source so you can really see the different textures of each element,” Colleen says. “The beauty dish let us soften the light without taking away the direct shadow. We placed white and gray fill cards around the spaghetti to help deepen the shadows and underscore the lights’ direction.”


        在布置好意大利面后,摄影师用安装了雷达罩(原文为beauty dish,是安装在影室灯前的一个环形反光罩,光质中性偏硬,影室内多用来打眼神光,更自然。雷达罩是国内比较通用的叫法,故此处译为此。译者注)的影室灯为整个场景照明,这种光线广而柔,可以模拟窗户进入的光线。“拍摄食物时用光的一个技巧是使用方向性更强的光源,能够拍摄出每个元素的不同纹理”Piciottis说,“雷达罩可以使我们在不弱化阴影的情况下柔化光线,我们还在意大利面的周围放置了白色和灰色的补光板,进一步强化阴影并突出光线的方向”。

It also added dimension to the Parmesan cheese shavings, one of the most dramatic signs that this wasn’t a conventional food shot. An added benefit: Lowering the angle of the beauty dish helped them avoid glare on the base print.

        雷达罩的使用还增强了画面中意大利干酪屑的空间感,这也是本作品区别于传统食物摄影的最富戏剧性的标志。使用雷达罩的另一个好处是:降低雷达罩的角度能够避免相纸反光。

To Light their faux stop-action shot of spaghetti, the Picciottis used windowlight for the base print, and, for the spaghetti, a profoto Acute2 2400 WS strobe ($3,245, street) outfitted with a profoto white beauty dish ($352, street). They fired the strobe wirelessly with a pocketWizard radio trigger ($351, street). White and gray reflecting cards helped intensify shadows that added dimension and underscored the direction of the light.

        在这张模拟定格摄影的作品用光方面,Picciottis使用窗户的自然光为桌面照明,使用宝富图(Profoto)Acute2 2400WS影室灯(3245美元)加宝富图白色雷达罩(352美元)为意大利面打光。影室灯采用PocketWizard 无线触发器(351美元)同步闪光。白色和灰色的补光板帮助增加阴影的密度,强化了阴影并突出了光线的方向。

A Location Pro Takes The Studio Outside

三、外景专业摄影师将影室移至户外


Perhaps one of the most daunting lighting challenges is the location shoot. You lug along lights, must find or bring power sources, and then seamlessly integrate ambient and artificial light sources.

        外景拍摄的用光可能是对摄影师最严峻的挑战之一。摄影师必须携带灯具,自带或寻找电源,而且还要将环境光线和人工灯光天衣无缝的结合到一起。

For that reason, New York City pro Laura Barisonzi (www.barisonzi.com) originally wanted to go with natural light and reflectors for this portrait of a professional fitness model. “It would have been much easier than setting up lights and getting a power source for them,” says the sports and lifestyle specialist.

        出于以上原因,纽约市专业摄影师Laura Barisonzi在拍摄这张健美模特肖像之初只准备利用自然光和反光板拍摄,这位专业的体育和生活摄影师说,“这比搭设灯光,还要带着电源要简单多了”。

But spotty clouds rolled in and the ambient light fluctuated between direct and diffused sun.

        但天空中云团滚滚,环境光线也在直射和散射的阳光间交替。

The lighting strategy she ultimately used—two strobes overpowering the sun—let her continue shooting regardless of whether the sun was shining directly on her subject or not.

        摄影师使用的照明策略是利用两个影室灯压住阳光,这样她就不用关心阳光是否直射在模特的身上了。

“For me, the trick to good location lighting is having enough power,” she says. With batteries, she doesn’t like the long recycle waits between pops. “And I end up rushing because I’m afraid the charge will die. So I power my strobes with a generator.”

        “对我而言,外景拍摄用光的诀窍是确保充足的电力”,她说。她不喜欢用电池,因为两次闪光之间的充电时间太长。“如果用电池供电,我会急于完成拍摄,因为我总担心电池不够用,所以我通常用发电机为影室灯供电”。

For a neater set, she also likes working wirelessly with PocketWizard flash triggers.

        为保持场地整洁,她也喜欢使用PocketWizard闪光灯无线触发器。

To get this sunlit look, your lights must be high, hard, bright and aimed down at approximately 45 degrees. Lights perched that high can easily blow over, so when the wind picked up, Barisonzi weighted her stands with sand bags and had an assistant spot the higher stand on the left.


        模拟阳光的灯光必须要做到位置高、质地硬、亮度大,光线还要以约45度的角度向下照射。灯头的位置太高,灯架就容易被风刮倒,因此当有风的时候,Barisonzi会用沙袋增加灯架的重量,还会让助手在灯架左侧扶着更高的灯架。

Laura Barisonzi lit this shot with two AlienBees B1600 strobes ($360, direct, each) and one GS1 grid Spot ($36, direct). The strobes were powered by a Honda EU3200i generator. Her camera was a Nikon D3 with 24–70mm f/2.8 Nikkor lens.

        摄影师Laura Barisonzi在拍摄这张作品时使用了2支AlienBees B1600影室灯(每个360美元),1个GS1型蜂巢(原文为“grid spot”,是一种闪光灯附件,由于看起来非常像蜂巢,故得此名。作用是让光出现层次感,更硬更立体,适合烘托男性的硬朗。译者注),一台本田EU3200i型发电机提供电力。摄影师使用的相机是尼康D3,24-70mm f/2.8尼克尔镜头。

For Jewelry, It’s All About Sparkle

四、拍摄首饰,光采就是一切


Reflective objects are often the hardest to light and, of these, jewelry is the most time-consuming. The challenge is to make inanimate objects shimmer and glow with vibrancy and life.

        拍摄反光物体时的用光最难,其中以拍摄首饰最为耗时。最大的挑战在于要让没有生命的物体洋溢着跃动的光芒和生命的光采。

It’s a challenge that David Barowsky and Steven Devilbiss of Antfarm Photography (antfarmphotography.com) meet on a daily basis in their studio located in the heart of New York’s photo district.

        摄影师David Barowsky和Steven Deviliss每天都要面对这种挑战,他们是位于纽约市图片区(Photo District)的“Antfarm摄影”工作室的成员。

“We give a lot of attention to every facet, especially with diamonds, since they are so expensive,” says Barowsky. The 18-karat gold Faraone Mennella bracelets shown here are studded with very high-quality white, brown, and champagne pavé diamonds.

        “我们关注首饰的每一个方面,特别是钻石,因为它们都很昂贵”,摄影师Barowsky说。照片中的Faraone Mennella 18K金手镯上镶满了品相非常好的白钻、棕钻和香槟钻。

“For this shot, it’s all in the lighting, and we did very little imageediting after. Of course, we also needed a very sharp macro lens to capture the diamonds’ facets and subtle variations in color.”

        “对于这张照片而言,效果全部靠灯光制造,几乎没做过后期编辑。当然,我们也需要一个很锐的微距镜头来捕捉钻石的切割面和色彩上微妙的变化”。

Lighting jewelry is done one light at a time, and one facet or surface at a time. Some pieces can require up to a dozen lights and reflecting cards. “You keep working the lights on one surface until you get them right. When it looks good, you move on to the next light and surface,” Barowsky explains. “Make your set tight, and don’t allow ambient light to spill onto the piece and affect color temperature.”

        拍摄首饰用光时必须一灯一调,对首饰切割面和表面的光线也要做到一面一调。有的首饰在拍摄时需要同时使用10多个灯和反光板。“你必须不断调整一个表面上的光线,直到调整好了为止”,Barowsky解释到,“把灯光安排的紧凑一些,不要让环境光漏进来影响色温”。

Reflections from the background can reproduce as black dead zones. To prevent them, build a de facto light tent around your subject by completely surrounding it with lights, diffusers, and reflectors.

        背景的反射光可能会造成画面出现死黑区域,为避免出现这种情况,应在被摄主体周围布满灯、柔光罩和反光板,事实上起到柔光棚的作用。

The main lights used here were 3200 watt-second Broncolor Unilite strobe heads diffused through large Plexiglas panels placed to the left and right of the bracelets. The subjects sat on a reflective sheet of brushed sterling silver. Because the light heads are gridded, their output fell off across the Plexiglas (hot in the center, and dimmer toward the edges) which, in turn, created subtle gradations of tone in the gold.


         这张照片在拍摄时使用的是两个3200WS的布朗Unilite型影室灯头,手镯的左右两侧各安置一个,灯前放置有机玻璃板柔光,手镯放在刷有925银漆的反光片上。由于灯头装有栅格,光线通过有机玻璃后又再次衰减,这样就可以在黄金上创造出微妙的色调层次。

A highly focused Broncolor Picolite at the camera position added shine and sparkle to the diamonds, while the box light behind assured a clean white background and helped create the reflection on the silver sheet.

        布置在机位附近的布朗Picolite型闪光灯能发出集中的光线,可以增加钻石的光泽和闪光,同时手镯背后设置的灯箱既可以保证背景纯净,也可以在银色反光片上打出反射光。

Absolute exposure control is crucial, and to get it, the photographers relied on exposure histograms. While many shooters use histograms to ensure that they preserve detail in either highlights or shadows (or both), jewelry photographers also use them to monitor flare and keep the sparkly highlights from blowing out. “One of the main challenges with shooting bright, shiny jewelry on white is flare,” says Barowsky.

        准确的曝光控制也非常重要,要做到这一点,摄影师依靠的是曝光直方图。很多玩摄影的人都会利用直方图保留照片中高光或阴影部分的细节,拍摄首饰的摄影师则利用直方图来监控首饰的眩光,确保闪光的部分不会过曝。“拍摄明亮、耀眼首饰时,控制眩光是主要的挑战之一”,Barowsky说。

“One trick for reducing it is to slowly bring up the background light until it reads 255 on the historgram. If it pushes past 255, it will add unnecessary flare.”

        “减少眩光的一个诀窍是将背景光的直方图读数逐步提高到255,如果超过了255,就会出现不必要的眩光”。

Antfarm Photography’s team lit these two gold and diamond bracelets with a snooted and gridded Broncolor picolite ($720 street) and two Broncolor 3200 Ws unilite strobe heads ($1,510, street, each). Both were powered by Broncolor grafit powerpacks. The camera was a Sinar P2 4×5 view camera outfitted with a Sinar 54h digital back, and Schneider Digitar 120mm f/5.6 macro lens set to f/32.

        Antfarm摄影工作室的团队拍摄这两个镶钻金手镯时使用了1支加装聚光罩和栅格的布朗Picolite型影室灯(720美元),2个布朗Unilite型3200WS灯头(每个1510美元),由布朗grafit电源供电。摄影师使用的是仙娜 P2 4X5相机,配仙娜54h数码后背,施耐德120mm f/5.6微距镜头,拍摄光圈为f/32。

Lots Of Lights Keep It Dark

五、在灯光下保持昏暗


Effective lighting is a crucial element in advertising photography. To get this shot for a 2010 brochure for the Honda CR-V minivan/SUV hybrid, LA-based automotive photographer Jeff Ludes (www.jeffiudes.com) needed 4 hours and a team of three assistants.

        有效地运用灯光是广告摄影的重要环节。上面这张照片是为本田CRV minivan和混合动力SUV的2010宣传册拍摄的,来自洛杉矶的汽车摄影师Jeff Ludes和它的3个助手用了4个小时拍摄了这张照片。

His main lights were Arri tungstens, without the Fresnel lenses that cinematographers often use as broad spots. “We didn’t use Fresnel lenses because we wanted the light to spill everywhere, like street lights,” Ludes says.

        拍摄时的主光是Arri钨丝灯,摄影师没有使用电影摄影师经常使用的菲涅耳镜头。“没有使用菲涅耳镜头的原因是我们想让光线洋溢在整张照片中,就像路灯的灯光那样”,Ludes说。

In fact, the existing lights were an important part of his lighting setup, and all the added background lights were gelled with a unique combination of color-correcting acetate filters so their output matched the color temperature of the street lights.

        实际上,现场已有的灯光也是整个布光中重要的一部分,所有后加的背景灯都安装了校正色彩用的醋酸酯滤光片,用来确保输出灯光的色温与路灯一致。

His ultimate goal was to add color and mood that would offer an emotional context for the car (upbeat, youthful, and urban chic). Of equal importance, however, was using lighting to sculpt the car physically: its shaping, line, color, and size. To make it stand out, he lit the car with a whiter light than the warm background, which helped its cool blue color stand out.

        摄影师的最终目标是要增加色彩和氛围,赋予汽车一种感情色彩─乐观、年轻和都市情怀。但是利用灯光勾勒汽车的外型也很重要,要表现出汽车的造型、线条、色彩和大小。为了突出主体,在汽车的用光上摄影师选择了比暖色背景更为明亮的灯光,使蓝色的车身更加突出。

As the blue sky and its reflections in the windows hint, this shot was made at dusk. “The challenge for lighting a dusk scene like this is that the lights have to be set up during broad daylight, when you can’t really evaluate their placement and brightness levels,” says Ludes. “Then when the sun goes down, you have to work very quickly to fine-tune the final placement and shoot during that small window when the balance between artificial and daylight is perfect.”

        考虑到蓝色的天空和窗户的反射,摄影师选择在黄昏时拍摄这张照片。“在黄昏时用光的难点在于灯光要在天亮的时候就准备好,而这个时候根本无法确定灯光的布设位置和亮度水平”,Ludes说,“当太阳快落山时,你必须快速精确地调整灯光的最终位置,并在日光和灯光取得完美平衡的一小段时间窗口内进行拍摄”。

If Ludes had used 2000-watt lights throughout this scene, the resulting exposures would have produced deep, black shadows in the unlit areas, which would have undermined the photographer’s vision for a vibrant, light-filled street scene. “When gels weren’t needed,” says Ludes, “we often used lights as small as 150 watts.”

        如果Ludes在整个现场使用2000瓦的灯进行照明,最终在未被灯光照及的区域可能会产生深黑的阴影,这将破坏摄影师拍摄一个充满活力、洋溢着灯光的街景的构想。Ludes说,“我们经常使用150瓦的小功率灯(这句话前面还有一句是“When gels weren’t needed”,不才本人绞尽脑汁也不明白是什么意思,望高手不吝赐教。译者注)”。

He explains, “One thing people don’t realize about lighting after dark is that very small, dim lights are often preferable to larger, brighter lights. Anything too bright will only cause the shadows to darken.”

        他解释说:“大家普遍没有注意到在昏暗场景中用光时,小而暗的灯通常比大而亮的灯更合适,太亮的灯只会造成深暗的阴影。”

Other details? A water truck wet down the street to give life and sheen to those surfaces which otherwise would have been murky, featureless blacks. The photographer’s team also built the foreground sidewalk, so the composition wouldn’t imply that the Honda was stopped in the middle of the street (it was actually parked in front of a driveway).


        其它的拍摄细节?一辆水车浇湿了整条街道,使那些本来阴暗且毫无特色的黑色表面变得富有生气和充满光泽。摄影师的团队甚至还“建造”了前景中的人行道,掩盖了车辆其实停在马路中间的事实(被摄车辆其实就停在一条行车道前)。

The final image shown here is a composite of eight different pictures, each framed, lit, and selected for the way it rendered a specific element. Separate exposures were made for the car’s side, wheels, and back, for example. “When the lights sculpted the fender properly, they threw the wheel wells into dark shadow, which necessitated a separate exposure for the tires,” says Ludes.

        最终的照片由8张不同的照片合成,每张照片都针对特定的元素进行构图、打光和选择,例如针对汽车的侧面、后面和轮胎分别进行曝光。“如果打在挡泥板上的灯光合适,那么轮毂槽处就会出现很深的阴影,因此有必要对轮胎进行单独曝光 ”,Ludes说。

Now that’s a production! 

        一张作品就此诞生!

Jeff Ludes lit this scene with four 1,000-watt, four 650-watt, one 2,000- watt, and one 350-watt arri tungsten lights. Those illuminating the human models in the background were softened through Scrim Jim diffusion panels. While the arris threw a warm light, the car was lit by the cooler 8-foot Kino flo daylight fluorescent fixture. Shot with an alpa Max mediumformat camera, phase one p65+ digital back and rodenstock APO Sironar 35mm f/4.5 hr lens.

        摄影师Jeff Ludes拍摄这张照片使用的灯光包括4支1000W、4支650W、1支2000W和1支350W的Arri钨丝灯。背景中人物模特的灯光通过Scrim Jim漫射板进行了柔化。与Arri钨丝灯的暖光不同,打在汽车上的灯光由稍冷色的8英尺Kino flo日光荧光灯提供。拍摄使用的相机是阿尔帕Max中画幅相机,飞思p65+数码后背和Rodenstock APO Sironar 35mm f/4.5 HR镜头.

 

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