The iPhone Tab Bar Lessons From Reality

Instacall

Over the last couple of years, the iPhone has greatly popularized the tab bar navigational model for mobile handsets. Apple has put together a design rationale for the tab bar in their Human Interface Guidelines (HIG) along with lots and lots of other information — they do however leave some question unanswered. Having worked with interaction and graphical design for iPhone applications during the last couple of years I’ve managed to pick up some lessons the hard way, and in this post I would like to share my thoughts on a couple of do’s and don’ts.

在过去的几年中,iPhone成功的使得Tab Bar标签栏导航方式在移动设备上流行起来。Apple将tab bar和其它许多的设计原则整合到了他们的人机交互指南(HIG)中——但有些疑问他们从来没有回答。在过去的几年中我一直从事交互与图形设计,在这篇文章中我将分享一些我的想法有关什么是该做的,什么是不该做的。

Lesson 1: The magic number is five魔法数字是5

This hardly is news to anyone with a bit of insight into iPhone design. Since the screen width of an iPhone is 320 dots (1 dots = 1 or 2 pixels), Apple designed the standard tab bar to contain no more then five tabs to be able to maintain visible iconography and readable copy.

这对从事iPhone设计的人来说不是新鲜事。自从iPhone的屏幕宽度为320点(dots)开始(1点=2象素),Apple设计了标准的tab bar不能超过5个tab,每个tab包含其图标与可读的文字。

What happens after five? Well, there is of course a way to work around this by resorting to the “More” functionality built into the standard tab bar. But, I would suggest avoiding the “More” tab as far as you can. Why? Well…

5个之后会如何呢?当然,我们可以采用使用"More"标签的方式放进标准的tab bar。但是我还是推荐尽可能的去避免"More"标签。为什么呢?

  • First of all, you constantly lose an extra tab
    首先,你自然会损失掉一个tab
  • You put the burden on the users to remember what is hidden beneath the “More” tab. This becomes especially troublesome if the number of items in the “More” view exceeds 5, since the cognitive load can become to overwhelming for a user to handle (more on cognitive load)
    你将记录"More"标签下功能的这个重担交给了用户。如果你的"More"下面的内容达到5个时,问题更加突出,这些加重了用户的认知负荷能力
  • Testing has revealed that most users don’t know about or the meaning of the “More” feature, and simply doesn’t bother using it (Source: Tapworthy — Designing Great iPhone Apps by Josh Clark)
    一些测试表明用户根本不知道"More"功能的用途,而且根本不会影响用户

However, when you are working with perspectives, data sorting and categorization (e.g. like in the iPod), the “More” tab makes more sense then it otherwise should as long as you let the user edit the preferred tabs. Just remember that editing the preferred tabs is the behavior of a somewhat advanced user.

当然,当你在各种视图下工作、数据排序以及分类时(例如iPod),使用"More"标签的方式来替代让用户自定义标签会更合理一些。因为自定义标签的这种行为在某些情况下只适用于高级用户。

Lesson 2: Ask the users询问用户的意见

This should hopefully be covered much earlier in your design process, but the categorization and classification of the activities that the tabs represent should cohere to at least the overall perception of your targeted audience. While doing this kind of research and testing, keep in mind “Lesson 1″ and explore if the activities could be categorized into five segments. If not? Ask yourself if you really should use the tab bar as the navigational model.

这种方式在你的设计过程中会非常有帮助,但标签的分类和级别应该更接近于你目标用户群的想法。当我们做这种研究测试时,记得事实1中提到的内容,不断思考所有的内容是否能分类到五个标签之中。如果不行,请问自己是不是非得用tab bar作为导航方式呢?

Lesson 3: Put a lot of time on icons and copy花多的时间在图标和文字上

A couple of points to keep in mind regarding the iconography and copywriting:一些用于图标设计及文案设计的点子:

  • Make sure that the iconography and copy actually depicts the underlying activities of the tabs. Nothing is more frustrating than remembering that an application contains a certain functionality, but not being able to determine under what tab you will find it.
    确定图标和文案能真实的标签这些标签下所要进行的行为。最让人闹火的事情莫过于明明知道程序中有一个功能,但却不知道在哪个tab下面
  • Avoid creating distracting stimulus through semantic interference, e.g. by having a paintbrush icon with the copy “Reports” underneath it. This is also known as picture-word interference
    避免一些语义上无关的设计,例如一个笔刷的图标但下面却写着“报表”。可参见 picture word interference
  • If you are creating yet another “Favorites” tab, don’t try to reinvent the star icon or the word “Favorites”. Since recognition is less expensive than recall, you should help your users minimize their cognitive load (Jacob Nielsens Ten Usability Heuristics).
    如果你要创建另一个“我的收藏”的标签,不用试着重新设计星形图标或改变文字“我的收藏”(Favorites)。虽然重新识别一个事物的成本低于回忆事物,但是我们应该帮助用户减少认知负荷(Jacob Nielsens Ten Usability Heuristics)
  • Avoid recurring words in your copy. For example, imagine that you create a tab bar containing three tabs where the labels read “My Books”, “My Magazines” and “My CDs”. According to the Stroop Effect the meaning of the words is extracted even when participants try not to processes them (i.e. it will be almost impossible for your users to help themselves from reading “My” on every single tab).
    避免出现重复的文字。例如,想象你需要创建“我的图书”“我的杂志”“我的CD”这样的情况。根据Stroop effect(斯特鲁普效应)的解释用户会主动忽略掉这些文字。
  • Visually and metaphorically distinguish the iconography so that users immediately knows which tab to tap, instead of having to waste precious time over thinking “Do I find settings beneath the wrench or the cog wheel?”.
    让图标设计得有含义及易于识别这样用户能立即知道该点哪个tab,避免让用户考虑例如“到底是扳手呢?还是在齿轮表示设置呢?”
  • If you have a hard time creating an icon depicting the underlying functionality of a tab, try looking at the content layout of the view it represents for inspiration to create visual cues for your users.
    如果你在设计图标的时候遇到一些问题,不妨进这一层下面的内容去看看下面的布局以及内容是否能激发你的灵感。
  • Again, this is a matter of both heuristics and field-testing. Ask the users to get to know their way of reasoning! “What do you think this face icon represent?” “What do you expect to find beneath a tab called ‘Finder’?” “Does it make sense to you that the icon is a face, and the copy is ‘Finder’?”

重申,实地测试和探索非常重要。问问用户他们的理解方式!“你们认为这个脸部图标表示什么?”“你们觉得应该在什么样tab下可以找到Finder”“你觉得图标是脸,而文字写着Finder,这样说得通吗?”

 

Figure 1Figure 1 — Left: NUUS 24 uses similar icons, Middle: Spotify uses a house icon with the copy “What’s new”, Right: Vimeo uses a copy containing “My Videos” and “My Stuff”

左: NUUS 24 使用了相似的图标, 中: Spotify 使用了房子图标和 “What’s new”的文字, Right: Vimeo 重复使用文字 “My Videos” 和 “My Stuff”

Lesson 4: Avoid changing tabs automatically避免自动改变tab

This is a big re-occurring discussion in many of the app projects I have been involved in. In my opinion, you should never change tab from a non-tab-bar navigational action! I know that you might find yourself in a situation where this seems to be the only way to solve some weird information architectural corner case, but try your best to avoid it! Why?

这是在我从事的很多项目中经常争论的问题。我的想法是,如果不是用户主动直接的在Tab上发生交互行为,永远不要改变Tab!我知道你们有可能在一些情况上发现这是唯一能解决一些奇怪的信息架构问题的方式,但是请还是主动去避免!为什么呢?

  • You are breaking the users sense of control by doing something that to them is unexpected. When a user taps on a table view item they are in 9 out of 10 cases expecting the outcome to be: a) a right to left view transition or b) a bottom to top modal view transition.
    你在尝试打断用户所期望的控制行为。举例当用户点击一个表视图(Table View)的时候,他们永远期待二种结果:a)新视图从右向左滑进,b)新视图从下向上滑进。他们同样不希望在Tab Bar上发生他们预想不到的变化
  • You break the natural back tracing that users are most accustomed to on an iPhone. If they have not noticed the subtle change of tab in the tab bar, you will have a situation of momentary confusion once they start looking for the back button in the navigation bar.
    你在扰乱用户早已习惯的iPhone“返回”交互习惯。如果他们没有注意到Tab已经改变,他们有可能以为到了下一级,试图找“返回”按钮
Lesson 5: Don’t make tabs exclusive不要在Tab上做限制

Don’t make tabs restricted to a certain type of users (e.g. registered members) if you don’t provide an easy way for the users to get access to it. You will probably create a lot of unnecessary frustration since every first time use of the app will produce x number of frustrating taps (where x represents the number of tabs you chose restrict). This is likely not in line with the overall experience you are trying to design for.

如果你没有提供更好的方式让用户访问某些内容,不用让Tab设计具备限制性(如只针对注册用户)。让用户点击后才发现这些内容不可用时,这会让他们非常苦恼。

Figure 2

Figure 2 — Hemnet (a popular Swedish application for finding real estates) restricts the two middle tabs for registered members. First it tells you that you need to register, but no information is given where to do so.

Hemnet 应用中当你点击某个Tab时,提示你必须登录

Lesson 6: Customize, but beware小心使用自定义Tab

After a couple of iPhone projects where the information architecture has nailed the tab bar as the most fitting navigational model again and again, designers tend to get bored. Speaking as a designer myself: when designers get bored, shit will happen. One way of fixing this urge for change is sometimes to walk down the path of customizing the tab bar.

当越来越多的iPhone应用使用Tab Bar来展示信息架构的时候,设计师已经开始觉得无趣。设计师自己都知道,当设计师自己觉得无趣时,坏情况可能发生。一种方式就是为了避免设计上的无趣,开始自定义Tab Bar。

Now, I’m all for customizing, because it creates personality, memorability, and boosted brand experience. But, along with something that sounds this incredible comes of course a couple of important things to keep in mind.

现在,我也是常常自定义Tab,因为能有个性,好记忆,而且有更好的品牌体验。但是有一些重要的事情必须牢记于心。

  • It takes time, and sometimes it takes a lot of time. From a developers perspective, customizing the tab bar (the one thing that manages the whole navigational stack of your application) means completely re-writing code that otherwise comes for free.
    需花时候,而且有时候要花大量的时间。从开发人员角度来说,自定义Tab Bar 意味着完全重写代码。
  • There is actually a really good reason why Apple picked the hues for the background of the tab bar and the tool bar; it distinctly separates the visual appearance between levels of navigation. Keep this in mind while creating your own color schemas.
    Apple设计Tab Bar和Tool Bar的颜色色调时是有一定理由的;它能很好的区别外观和导航的级别。将这种思想带到你的色彩设计之中。
  • Sometimes developers and designers forget the fact that if you tap an active tab in a tab bar, you should automatically be taken to the top of the navigation stack or that when you have an ongoing phone call you have to accommodate for the double height status bar. Don’t forget to implement all the functionality that is expected from a standard tab bar.
    有时候开发者和设计师总是忘了当点击一个Tab时,顶部的导航条显示了当前位置,同时如果有电话打入,系统的状态栏会变成双倍高度。别忘了设计这些情况。
  • Some applications uses the custom design pattern with a multiple-layered tab bar (e.g. Twitter for iPhone). If you are considering this approach, be humble enough to realize that you are going to confuse a lot of your users.
    有些应用使用一些自定的设计模式来应对具有共享视图的Tab Bar(如Twitter for iPhone)。如果你也考虑这种方式,那注意你有可能让你的用户产生疑惑。

Figure 3

Figure 3 — In Twitter for iPhone, the multiple-layered tab bar easily get confusing since it redefines the back functionality. Tapping on the table cell saying “651 favorites” take the user to the favorites view. But since it’s also a tab, the back button in navigation bar takes you to the previous level of the multiple-layered tab bar.

在Twitter for iPhone中,这种多层Tab很容易让人困惑。当点了第一屏中的"651 favorites"后,进入了"favorites"视图,如中图所示,再点Back按钮,在第三屏中还是处于同一等级下的Tab,这时图标变成了"More"

Summary总结

The tab bar is the one thing that is constantly going to be the face of your application to guide the users as they navigate your application. Don’t underestimate the time you need to put into creating a flawless tab bar experience. These lessons are in no way rules, but hopefully an eye opener!

tab bar是你导航应用的主要方式。不要低估了设计一个完美的tab bar体验所要花的时间。这些总结中并没有绝对的规则,但希望能让你开启思路。

原文出处significantpixels.com翻译 Experience10.com

莱卡+Iphone 德味,毒

来自美国加州的设计工作室 Black Design Associates推出了一款将iPhone 4同徕卡相机相结合的设计作品,1210万CMOS感光元件,八倍光学变焦、0.3秒开机、徕卡的旁轴取景窗以及徕卡为iOS设计的软件,支持SD卡。

为什么那些科技巨头的创始人都如此混蛋?

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看过《社交网络》的人都对Facebook的创始人马克.扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)有着不同的看法,有人认为他才华出众,也有人为他的行为所不齿。

片中有一个情节就是他的合作人爱德华多的股权被稀释到了0.3%,这是否是马克的蓄意行为,我们无从得知。那么除此之外,在其他知名公司的内部是否也发生过一些不为人知的事件呢?是否这些创办者都有着足够高的素质呢?

过去几周来,在Facebook、苹果、Zynga和其它大型科技公司之后,又爆出微软和Twitter的共同创办人涉及追踪用户数据的丑闻。电脑和金钱为什么给我们灌输的都是这些罪恶的东西呢?就像“硅谷观察者”(Silicon Valley Watcher)的博主汤姆·佛姆斯基(Tom Foremski)提到的那样,近来关于这些创始人道德方面的新闻越来越多。

微软

对于软件霸主微软公司,用电脑的人没有不知道的,董事长比尔·盖茨的大名更是妇孺皆知,然而功劳不是盖茨一个人的,盖茨所创立的仅是微软的60%,其它的是属于保罗·艾伦(Paul Allen)的。

近日,艾伦在他的新书中书说道,他的伙伴比尔·盖茨曾经两次稀释他的股权。因为他的癌症治疗和下降的生产率,盖茨曾通过与微软的现任首席执行官史蒂夫·鲍尔默(Steve Ballmer)进行商讨的方式来淡化他的股权,虽然这得到了他的默许,但是他很快就后悔了。

Twitter

类似的事情还发生在了Twitter的创始人身上。作为Twitter的“精神领袖”、公司的命名者诺亚·格拉斯(Noah Glass)至今仍感觉自己被背叛了,因为在现任的CEO伊万·威廉姆斯(Evan Williams)将兴趣转向微博服务之后,他就被解雇了,而微博就是他一开始就倡导的想法。威廉姆斯还抛下了与他共同创立的Blogger.com公司的一群苦命的同事,并将网站售给了谷歌。

Facebook

除了开头说的稀释股权,Facebook的创始人马克·扎克伯格还承认在和一个类似Facebook的网站合作的时候,他发过一条内容是“I’m going to fuck them”的即时信息。同时,在泄漏出的邮件中,他还曾将Facebook的用户描述为一群“傻逼”。

Zynga

Zynga(一社交游戏公司)的首席执行官马克·平卡斯(Mark Pincus)也坦白道:“为了谋取即时的利润,多么可怕的事我都干得出来。”

苹果

就连苹果的任首席执行官史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)也有他难以启齿的故事。

他曾向苹果创始人之一的史蒂芬·沃茨尼柯(Steve Wozniak)撒谎。当乔布斯和茨尼柯一块儿为雅达利游戏公司(Atari)开发“突破重围”这款游戏时,说好了二者将平分这家公司付给的报酬。雅达利给了乔布斯5000美元,他却告诉沃茨尼这家公司支付给他700美元,所以沃茨尼柯仅仅分得350美元。

佛姆斯基在“硅谷观察者”中写道,

我希望下一代的年轻企业家能够正确区分出是非曲直,并在道德建设上有作做为。

年轻人做事难免会有犯下一些幼稚的错误,其实,也就是通过不断犯错误、跟别人争斗,进而我们才能逐渐确立人生中的真正底线。

小型企业的社交媒体快速入门指南Quickstart Guide to Social Media for Business

1. ESTABLISH YOUR GOALS设定目标

  • Ask why you need to be in social media.
    问一问你为什么你需要利用社交媒体
  • Formulate your social media goals and objectives.
    制订你的社交媒体目标
  • Align with the business goals of your company.
    配合你公司的业务目标

1a. GET INPUT FROM STAKEHOLDERS从利益攸关方获得输入

Conduct interviews and internal surveys to find out what social media channels would best serve your company and your goals.

举办访谈活动和内部调查,找出什么样的社交媒体渠道能够最好的服务于你的公司和目标。

2. WHERE ARE YOUR BUYERS?你的潜在顾客在哪里?

  • Map your buyers’ personae.
    定义买家人群
  • Find channels where your team’s and buyers’ interactions intersect.
    发现你的营销团队与买家互动渠道
  • Determine which social media channels will work best in reaching out to them.
    决定哪一个社交媒体渠道最有利于你与买家建立联系

3. MAP INFLUENCES定义影响分析

  • Use monitoring tools to find out more about your prospects.
    使用监控工具找出更多与前景有关系的东西
  • Discover the “influencers” of buyers’ purchase decisions – bloggers, partners, and even competitors.
    探索买家做购买决定的 “影响力” - 博客,合作伙伴,甚至是竞争对手

4. MAP RESPONSIBILITIES定义职责

  • Distribute key roles among stakeholders.
    发布利益相关人的主要规则
  • Set up a social media “task force” around key responsibilities
    围绕主要规则建立一个社交媒体“责任小组”

5. SET UP YOUR CHANNELS建立你的渠道

Use the internal survey results and buyers’ personae to determine which channels you will engage in, e.g., Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn
使用内部调查结果与Buyers’ Personae来决定经营的渠道,比如: Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn

6. ESTABLISH YOUR CONTENT STRATEGY建立你的内容战略

  • Source for existing content and repurpose it, e.g., whitepapers, case studies, opinion pieces, videos, etc.
    重新运用存在的资源,比如:白皮书,案例研究,思想片断,视频等等
  • Identify topics that align with key marketing focus areas.
    确定用来配合关键营销领域的主题
  • Research to determine relevancy by searching for brand name, competitors, and target keywords
    通过对搜索品牌名称,竞争对手,目标关键词来研究并确定关联的话题

7. ESTABLISH YOUR METRICS建立指标

  • Create and align metrics and monitoring framework with strategic objectives.
    根据战略目标和监控框架来创建指标
  • Some key measurement goals include Reach, Buzz, Sentiment, Influence.
    包括范围,言论,情绪,影响等的一些关键测量目标
  • Measure only what matters to the business.
    仅测量那些与生意相关的事项

8. CUSTOMIZE YOUR CHANNELS定制渠道

Set up, customize and optimize your channels, e.g., multi-author blogging platform, customized FB page, YouTube channel, etc.
建立,定制,优化你的社交媒体营销通道,如:多人博客平台,定制的facebook页面,以及YouTube渠道,等等…

9. SET UP ENGAGEMENT FRAMEWORK建立联姻框架

  • Work out who responds, how, where (what channel), and how often.
    找出谁,如何,在哪里(什么渠道)响应了你的信息,以及活动的频率
  • Constancy and immediacy are keys to well-managed social media engagement.
    稳定性与及时性是管理良好的社交媒体联姻的关键

10. DEVELOP A SOCIAL MEDIA POLICY开发社交媒体政策

  • Based on best practices, what’s acceptable, out-of-bounds markers, confidential information, business vs. personal capacity, etc.
    基于最佳实践,什么是可接受的,跳出界限指标,机密信息,商业挑战个人能力,等等…
  • Document everything to avoid grey areas that may hinder engagement.
    将一切文档化,避免可能阻碍联姻的灰色区域

11. PUBLISH YOUR INITIAL CONTENT发布你的初始内容

  • Develop an editorial schedule.
    研制一个编辑日程
  • Populate your channels with appropriate content.
    用合适的内容充实营销渠道
  • Establish content syndication mechanisms across social media channels.
    建立跨社交网络的内容同步机制

12. MONITOR & MEASURE监控与测量

Set up monitoring and measurement tools based on the metrics established earlier.
建立基于先前指标的监控和测量工具

13. HARNESS THE POWER OF YOUR INTERNAL NETWORKS充分利用内部网络的力量

  • Time to get your team to provide the initial ballast.
    花点时间让你的团队去磨练
  • Propagate, publicize, promote.
    传播,宣传,推广

14. YOU ARE OFF!

  • Analyze, Adapt and Improve: Adapt any new findings into current processes, and improve efforts as you navigate through this social media journey.
    分析,适应并改进:调整任何新发现到当前过程中去,通过本次社交媒体过程来努力改进。
  • Remember – this is an iterative process.
    记住 - 这是一个反复的过程

Infographic – Quickstart Guide to Social Media for Business

避免工作狂,勿贪求过多

时间是无法省略的,所有的工作都需要花费一笔时间。

——博恩·崔西

谈到这个话题使我想起了一个故事。

在很久以前,有一个人立了功,国王便对他说:"你立了大功,从现在开始,你所走过的土地我都可以赐给你。"于是这个人不停地走, 在太阳落山的时候没有赶回来。因为他想土地越多越好,所以一路奔跑,在太阳下山时还舍不得回来。最后又渴又累,就再也没有回来了 。

这虽然是传说,可是在现实生活中确实有许多"走不回来"的人,他们和传说中的这个人一样犯了贪求过多的"毛病"。"贪多吃不烂" 是"贪求过多"的典型特征,这类型的人为了完成工作,不得不长时间地工作,成为所谓的"工作狂"。

据统计,在过去20年里,工作的时间增加了15%,娱乐闲睱时间减少了33%。

在各种各样的机构中,许多管理者的工作时间都很长,而且职位愈高者工作时间愈长。难道职位越高的管理者,他的工作时间将无可避免地延长?许多人对这个问题都给予了肯定的答复。理由是:当一个人在组织中职位上升得愈高,工作愈加紧要,其责任愈加重大,所以工作时间自然延长。可是,对这个问题的否定答复,或许更加令人信服:当一个人在组织中职位升得愈高,上级授予他的权力愈大,供他差遣的员工也愈多,因此工作时间不应随职位的升高而增加。

统计调査显示,每周工作时间超过55小时、甚至60小时的管理者大有人在。令人感到奇怪的是:这些长时间工作的人大多数都不认为自己工作过长。事实上,有些管理者只有等到心脏病突发、太太闹分居和子女教育不好时,才领悟到自己的工作时间过长。

偶尔性的加班并不足以产生不良后果,但是经常性的长时间工作则有不良后果。以下三种不良的后果,很值得管理者注意:

  1. 研究发现,每天的工作时间一超过8小时,生产效率就会快速的递减。倘若这些研究的结果是可信的,那么每周工作时间最好不超过40小时(按5个工作日计算)为好。
  2. 长时间工作足以令人养成拖延的习惯。许多管理者对工作因保持着"白天做不完,夜晚还可以做。平时做不完,周末和礼拜天还可以做"的态度,于是使8小时可以做好的事被拖延到10小时才完成,5天可以做好的事被拖延到6天才完成。这不幸应验了帕金森所提出的"帕金森定律",即如可供完成工作的时间为8小时,则工作将在8小时内完成;如可供完成工作的时间被增加为1 0小时,则同样的工作将改在1 0小时内完成。
  3. 长时间工作可能导致工作的失败。管理学者约瑟夫,崔岂特曾经对一群管理者在事业上的成败进行研究,他发现成功的管理者与失败的管理者的差别在于,后者随时愿意为工作而牺牲家庭。即忽视家庭而过度强调工作的管理者,其工作终究会不佳。长时间工作所导致的不良后果足以说明,为何一些机构会强迫员工定期休假、限制加班次数和加班时间,或是不准累积假期。

下面是造成贪求过多的原因和解决方法:

  • 好大喜功,喜欢代劳

我们的时间是有限的,我们不可能倣完所有的事情。在遇到这种情况时,我们要记录自己的工作日志,分析自己是否有替同事和别人代劳的倾向,多分派些工作出去,适时拒绝他人的要求。

  • 欠缺优先顺序与计划

把时间和精力放在最优先的工作上,不要理会一大堆对个人目标毫无意义的事情,即不要从老鼠身上挤奶。

  • 工作时间估算得不切实际

有很多时候,引起工作过多是因为没能准确地估计各种工作所花费的时间。有一种人特别自信,他总是认为什么事情一到他的手里就会很顺利。墨菲定律告诉我们每件事情所花的时间要比我们想象的长。分析完成时间被低估的工作,然后增加适当的缓冲时间(20%至50%)。

  • 遇到急事立刻反应

分清急事与要事之间的差别。在短期目标之间找出平衡点,做反应之前先自问:"最坏的情况会是什么样?"

 

  • 虚荣心太强、成就感需求太大

成就感是建立在实现目的的基础上。控制自己的野心,回到当下。做合乎能力和情况的事,问自己企图证明什么。要讲求实际、高瞻远瞩,别再过度自我强求。

  • 不敢拒绝别人

要向"打球"的人学习,如果有人传球给我们,我们可以根据自己的情况判断:是自己"带球上篮"还是做个"二传手"或者直接把球"传"回去。

勇敢地对不是自己做的事情说"不"。别再只是因为希望受人赞赏而来者不拒,分清楚与人合作和帮人做事的态度间的差别,学会在不冒犯别人的情况下拒绝别人,以自己的工作优先顺序做为拒绝理由,并在适当时候提供替代方法。

Letting Bad Design Decisions Happen包容不良的设计决策

Letting Bad Design Decisions Happen

For a web designer — whether you work in a design agency, a design department of a large company, or as a freelancer — it’s a rare occasion that you embark on a project totally on your own. The creation and deployment of a new website is almost always a team activity comprised of clients, employers, other designers, and developers.

对一个网页设计师来说,不管你是在一个设计机构、一个大公司的设计部门工作亦或是一个自由职业者,完全靠个人来展开一项工作的情况几乎是不存在的。创建和部署一个新的网站是一项团队活动,它需要客户、雇主、其他设计师和开发者的共同参与。

Our role as web designers is much more than just creating an aesthetically pleasing web design. It’s our job to be the experts on how web pages will feel and how people visiting the site will use them. Web designers should be responsible for asserting design best practices for accomplishing the project’s needs and objectives. This role should not be taken casually.

作为网页设计者,我们的角色不仅仅是创建一个能给人美感享受的网页设计,同样我们也要精通于网站访客对网页的感受及这些人如何使用网页。为了完成项目需求和目标,网页设计师应该为提出最佳设计方法负责。这种角色不能随便对待。

Establishing Your Role定位你的角色

Before any pixels are paved, website projects should start with a set of goals and a discussion of how to reach those goals. Timelines are laid out, work is divided, and paths are drawn out to drive the project towards the desired outcomes. It is here, during the planning stage, that a designer must first set their feet and establish his roles and responsibilities. Having an open discussion with your client or your boss about the direction you think a design should take is a critical step to ensuring that all project members arel on the same page.

在任何基础铺垫之前,网站项目应该先以制定一系列的目标开始,并对何如实现这些目标而进行的讨论。在开始的时候,应该将时间表安排好,工作分配好,并且使项目朝着预期目标前进的路线也需要制订出来。在规划阶段,设计师必须首先设定好自己的步伐并且定位好自己的角色和责任。和你的客户或者是老板讨论一下你认为设计应该朝什么方向发展是很关键的一步,因为这样可以确保项目的所有成员达成一致意见。

Having an initial meeting with a client or employer will rarely result in a perfect conversation where both parties are in total agreement on every point of how a new web design should be carried out. However, for the designer, it can often be hard to speak up to the person who is signing her check. Designers who have a hard time telling the person they are working with that they are making a bad decision are putting themselves at an early disadvantage.

初次和客户或者雇主见面时很少有谈的很默契的,因为双方不可能在网站如何设计的每一个细节上都是一致。不过,对于设计师来说,很多时候向付钱给他的人提出异议是很困难的。如果一个设计师对告诉与他一起工作的人他们做了不好的决策这事觉得很为难,那么在一开始,这个设计师就处在了很不利的位置。

Even though this client works exclusively with people, they insisted that their new site include pictures of their horses.

Even though this client works exclusively with people, they insisted that their new site include pictures of their horses.

即使这个客户专门和别人一起工作,但是他们还是会坚持要将他们的马匹的照片放在自己的新网站上。

Taking the Shot主动出击

For any designer who has done more than a few projects with a variety of people, it will start to become evident that there are patterns and warning signs in site design planning discussions that ultimately lead up to bad design decisions. Oftentimes these decisions fall along the lines of misuse of space, color, alignment, and the like. Years of experience and data analysis on various areas of web design most often provide the web designer with the knowledge and ample ammunition to make the right call in these situations.

对于那些已经和各种各样的人一起完成了很多网站设计项目的设计师来说,在网站设计规划讨论中明显会出现有些模式和预警信号,这些因素最终导致一个很不好的设计决策。很多时候,这些决策之所以不好,是因为它们错误地运用了空间、颜色、排布等因素。多年的经验和对各种领域网站设计的数据分析通常能给设计师们提供相关知识和充分的信息,所以在这种情况下,他们能够发出自己正确的呼声。

This is the time in the process when, for example, you need to tell your client that you won’t condense all the content at the top of a web page simply because they believe the "above the fold" myth.

例如,在网站设计过程中,当客户将"明显位置"奉为神话时,这时候你应该告诉客户你并不会仅仅因为这个原因而将所有的内容都压缩到网页的顶部。

Despite the fact that better readability can be achieved with increased line-heights, the client assumed users would not scroll to read the text.

尽管由于行高度的增加达到了更好的可读性目的,但客户却是在假设用户不用滚动阅读网站内容的前提下得到这个结论的。

Confidently expressing your expert opinion will often go a long way towards helping clients realize that they employ web designers for a lot more than knowledge of design software,HTML and CSS.

自信地表达出你的专业意见对客户更好地认识他们所聘请的网页设计师有很大的帮助,他们会认为你不仅仅只是具有设计软件, HTML和CSS的知识。

If necessary, you may even want to dig into some facts and show clients the results of studies to back you up; there are plenty of usability studies and articles on the Web to help you make your case.

如果有必要,你可能都会想去钻研一些实例并将研究的结果展示给客户以使他们支持你。网络上有很多可用的研究和文章来帮助证明你说的情况。

Working in a dialog with your clients will help you reach an ideal solution and allow you to execute a new design in the best way possible, ensuring that you are doing your part to bring this project into the light of great web design.

和你的客户保持沟通可以帮你获得一个理想的解决方案,并允许你尽可能以最好的方式来执行一个新的设计。这样,可以确保你做好本职工作,还能使这个项目成为一个很好的网站设计的例子。

However, what happens when the client pushes back? People with predisposed opinions about how their website should look can often have a hard time playing the give-and-take game with their ideas.

然而,当客户不接受你的想法时怎么办呢?这时,那些之前已经想好他们的网站看起来应该是什么样子的设计师,再想让客户对他们的想法妥协会是很困难的。

How hard should a web designer fight for a good design decision before they throw in the towel and let a bad design decision happen?

在设计师们认输并采用一个糟糕的设计策略之前,他应该做出多少努力来维护他的良好的设计决策呢?

When to Push Back何时拒绝

Some things should never be compromised. If a client tells you that this brand new site needs to be designed for an Internet Explorer 5.5 audience — unless their is just cause for designing specifically for this outdated browser (I doubt there is) — the informed designer needs to let the client know that they will walk out the door before even starting that project. Refusing to fold to huge design and development blunders will often pay off in the end. Generally, a professional conversation about why you, as a designer, refuse to implement a poor idea will win most battles.

有一些事情永远不能妥协。如果客户告诉你这个全新的网站需要为Internet Explorer 5.5用户设计——除非正好需要为这些过时的浏览者进行有针对的设计(我怀疑是没有的)——在开始项目之前,有见识的设计师会让客户走出去调查一下。拒绝向重大的设计和开发错误低头,最后往往会得到回报。一般来说,作为一个设计师,一次关于你为什么拒绝执行一个坏想法的专业谈话,能使你在大多数情况下获得胜利。

Apart from the project at hand, drawing a line between where you can deviate from best practices and where you can’t has long term implications on your career. Working on projects that you have lost enthusiasm for because you know they could be better is a huge drain on creativity and can bleed over to your other work.

除了你手头的项目,分清哪里可以,哪里不行脱离最佳实践对你的事业有长远的影响。因为你知道一些项目对你来说不可能做得更好,从而失去了热情,但你还是为这些项目工作,这无疑是对你的创造力的巨大浪费,同时也会使你的其它工作受到很大的影响。

In addition, you are likely losing a potential portfolio piece when you have to dumb down that great design to IE 5.5 standards. When your portfolio is full of top-of-the-line work that follows best practices and web design standards, it will lead to better projects where clients care about the value of these things. So fighting to keep those portfolio pieces in tact can often be a good incentive for you to push back against bad ideas.

另外,当你不得不按照IE 5.5标准将好的设计进行简化时,你可能会失去一个潜在的组合项目。当你的组合充满了按照最好的实践和网站设计标准的顶级作品时,最终将有更好的项目诞生。在这些更好的项目中,客户将看到这些东西的价值。所以用机智的方法争取那些组合项目的保留,这有时候无疑是拒绝糟糕想法的一个很好理由。

When to Throw in the Towel何时服软

On the other hand, we need to consider the amount of time it can take to demonstrate and argue the pros and cons of every bad idea. For any project that has a deadline attached to it — a.k.a. all of them — time can be a pretty huge factor, especially for individuals who just seem to be full of bad ideas for their website.

另一方面,在证明和争论到底支持还是反对每一个不好的想法时,我们需要考虑花费的时间。因为对于任何一个有时间限制的项目,时间是一个很大的影响因素,尤其是那些对自己的网站设计充满了错误想法的人。

At the end of the day, we could have spent all afternoon fighting to inject our professional opinion all over the project, but if the work doesn’t get done, the bills don’t get paid.

在最后期限到来时,我们可能仅仅将所有的时间都花在了争取如何将专业的设计理念运用到整个项目中,但最终项目却没有完成,那么我们将得不到客户的支付。

For anyone who takes design seriously enough for it to be his or her primary source of income, the business side of things can be an important factor in helping them decide to let bad ideas happen.

对于有些人,他们将网站设计这个工作看得很重要,因为那是他们收入的主要来源。这样的话,在他们决定执行不好的想法时,经济方面将会是很重要的因素。

If a client wants to put a video player on their home page that auto-plays even though your experience shows that website users hate this, you should spend some time to argue against it. But if the client still won’t budge, then maybe you should just let it slide.

如果客户想把视频播放器放在他们网站的主页上,并让其打开网站时自动播放。这时即使你的经验表明网站用户是讨厌这样做的,你却要花费很多时间来反对他。但是如果客户仍不愿就此让步,那么也许你只能听其自然了。

After all, if it’s going to make our customer happy and it doesn’t cost us anything, thenmaybe this time we can let it go.

毕竟,如果能使我们的客户高兴却不花费我们任何代价,那么可能这次我们就让它这样好了。

Keyword-stuffing will hurt your search engine rankings these days.

如今关键词的堆积使你的网站在搜索引擎中的排序受到了负面的影响

We all want every project to be a home run, but we also can’t afford to watch every pitch go by waiting for the right opportunity.

我们都想让每个项目都很出色,但如果让每一块都处在网站的合适位置以使其获得好的机会的话,我们是支付不起费用的。

Defining Your Principles and Standards明确原则和标准

I know what you’re going to say. By suggesting that designers throw in the towel and execute their clients’ terrible ideas, I’m promoting a bad mindset and practice. Marquees and animated GIFs are going to make a comeback if clients had their way all the time.

我知道你准备怎么说。我上面建议设计师们能服个软并执行客户的糟糕想法,这其实是在促进不良的思维模式和做法。如果一直按照客户的方式设计网站,滚动字幕和GIF动画将东山再起。

What’s important to keep in mind is that, as I’ve said earlier, every designer should draw up a line he or she won’t cross. A designer should define their personal standards of what is and isn’t acceptable, and what is and isn’t negotiable — and then the designer should stick to it firmly.

正如我上面已经说过的,作为设计师,始终记着为自己制定一条不可逾越的底线是很重要的。一个设计师应该明确他们个人的标准,用这些标准来判断什么是可接受的、什么是不可接受的,什么是可商量的、什么是不可商量的。然后设计师门应该牢牢地坚持它。

Not every project makes it into your portfolio or reaches the distinction of being design-gallery-worthy. We all have projects that we aren’t proud of; skeletons in the closet that we tend to hide from the rest of the world. Why do we still do those projects? Because they pay the mortgage.

并不是每个网站设计项目都能成为你的组合项目或者成为值得被放在设计长廊里的、声誉很好的作品。我们都有无法令自己感到自豪的项目。这些项目就像骷髅被放在衣橱里不想让其见光一样,我们往往将那些项目隐藏起来而不愿让世人知晓。为什么我们还要做这些设计项目呢?是因为这些项目会给我们带来收入吧。

It is a fact that, at the end of the day, our craft is also our source of income. We are all motivated by financial incentives, and plenty of people have done much worse in order to make a buck.

最终,这将成为一个事实:我们的技能也是我们收入的来源。我们都由于经济原因而不得不做很多事情,并且为了挣钱,很多人做了一些更不好的事情。

For designers that are new to the field or are thinking about getting involved on a more professional level, it is easy to get swept away in the plethora of fantastic designs made available to learn from. But what you see in design showcases and your favorite designer’s portfolio does not reflect most of the design work that brings home the bacon.

对于那些在网站设计领域仍是新手或者正考虑达到更高业务水平的人来说,很容易被现在可以学习的过多的奇妙的设计所感染。但是你会看到,在设计展示品及你所喜爱的设计师的组合项目中,并没有反应能赚钱的设计方案。

Don’t Take the Client’s Ideas for Granted不要将客户的想法想当然

Don’t ignore your clients’ opinions on how their website should be designed. Any time you make a website for someone else, you can be assured that they know their target market better than you do (at least, at the start).

不要忽视你的客户关于他们的网站该如何设计的意见。任何时候当你为其他人设计网站时,你尽管放心,他们对自己的目标市场的了解比你多得多(至少在刚开始是这样的)。

Making big decisions about the direction of a web design should be a dialog. Multiple parties come together to work on the project because they all have something to contribute. The best results come out of a professional collaboration where everyone involved respects the opinion of their colleagues.

先交流后才能做出网站设计的方向是什么这个重大决策。多方应该一起工作来完成一个项目,因为他们都能贡献自己的一份力量。当参与项目的每个人能尊重相互间的意见,进行专业合作时,就会产生最好的结果。

With that said, it’s inevitable that there will be areas of conflict where one person’s suggestion will move forward, while the others are shot down.

这样的话就难免会出现一些冲突,在有些方面,有些人的建议是能推动项目前进的,而有些人的建议恰好相反。

For the designer who is looking to make a happy living doing what they love, it’s important that they learn to walk the line between building the perfect website and letting bad design decisions happen.

对于那些想生活行快乐、做自己喜欢的事的设计师们,学会游走于建立完美的网站和执行不良的决策之间是很重要的。

Do you sometimes execute a concept or change that you know could be better if you ignored the request of a client? What have you learned from being in situations where you disagree with other parties on a web design project?

有时当你知道如果你忽视了客户的要求,你的设计会更好时,你会执行一种理念或变通来达到这种效果吗?在网站设计项目中,当你处于不同意他人意见的情况下你学到了什么东西呢?

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