40 Things I Learned in My First 40 Years

Today I turn 40.  To ease the pain, I’ve decided to write a list of important lessons I’ve learned during my first four decades.  In no particular order:
现在,我已经40了。为了减轻痛苦,我决定,列出我前40年得到的重要的教训。无前后主次的顺序:

Bryan Caplan

Economics 经济

  1. Supply-and-demand solves countless mysteries of the world – everything from rent control to road congestion.
    供需关系解决了世界上从出租控制到道路拥塞等无数神秘事件。
  2. Almost anyone can understand supply-and-demand if they calmly listen.  Unfortunately, the inverse is also true.
    如果静下来细听,几乎每个人都能理解供求。不幸的是,反之亦然。
  3. Poverty is terrible, and economic growth, not redistribution, is the cure.
    贫穷是可怕的。经济增长,而不是重新分配,才是治愈良方。
  4. The proximate causes of unemployment are labor market regulation and workers’ misguided beliefs about fairness.  But the fundamental cause of unemployment is excessive wages. 
    失业的根本原因是劳动力市场的监管和工人对公平的错误理念。但根本原因是工资滥发。
  5. Free competition is far superior to "perfect" competition. 
    自由竞争远比“完美”竞争来得优越。
  6. Governments with fiat money have near-absolute power over nominal GDP, but much less over real GDP or employment.
    政府用很少的钱就能对所谓的GDP有绝对的控制力,但是远远控制不了真实的GDP和就业。
  7. Moral hazard and adverse selection are largely the product of – not a rationale for – regulation of insurance.
    道德沦丧和逆向选择很大程度上是保险监管的产物,而不是原因。
  8. Immigration restrictions are a fruitless crime – and do more harm than all other government regulations combined.
    移民限制是一种徒劳的罪行,伤害比其他所有政府管理的总和还多。
  9. Communism was a disaster because of bad incentives, not lack of incentives.
    因为不良刺激和缺乏激励,共产主义是一个灾难。
  10. The last two centuries of rising population and prosperity should fill us with awe – and the best is yet to come.
    上两个世纪的人口增长和繁荣应该让我们感到敬畏–而且好看的还在后头呢。

Philosophy 哲学

  1. The greatest philosophical mistake is to demand proof for the obvious.  See Hume.
    最大的哲学错误就是为显而易见的东西寻求证据。看休谟。
  2. The second greatest philosophical mistake is to try to prove the obvious.  See Descartes.
    第二个最大的哲学错误就是企图证明一些显而易见的东西。见笛尔卡。
  3. If you can’t explain your position clearly in simple language, you probably don’t understand it yourself.
    如果你在简单的语言中解释清楚自己的位置,那可能你自己也不明白。
  4. When possible, resolve debates about "what’s obvious" by betting, not talking.
    如果可能的话,解决一下关于“什么是显而易见”的争端,通过辩论而不是交谈。
  5. Ignoring the facts of dualism and radical free will is anti-empirical and unscientific.
    无视二元论和激进自由论的事实是和经验和科学相悖的。
  6. Talking about morality if there are no moral facts is like talking about unicorns if there aren’t any unicorns.  
    如果没有任何道德事实而谈论道德,就相当于没有独角兽而谈论独角兽。
  7. There are moral facts.
    存在道德事实。
  8. Productive moral arguments begin with clear-cut simple cases, not one-sentence moral theories or trolley problems.
    道德争议开始于简单的小事儿,而不是一句道德理论或推车问题。
  9. Violence and theft are presumptively wrong, and calling yourself "the government" does nothing to rebut these presumptions.
    暴力和偷窃,铁定是错误的。但政府却置之不理。
  10. The best three pages in philosophy remain Epicurus’ "Letter to Menoeceus."
    伊壁鸠鲁保留的在心理学上保留的最好的三页是“给莫诺瑟斯的信”。

Politics 政治

  1. Voters are irrational.  So is believing otherwise.
    选民是不合理的,然而却深信不疑。
  2. Government isn’t a solution to externalities problems; it’s the best example of the problem.
    政府不是对外部问题的一个答案,确实问题最好的例子。
  3. The main output of government isn’t "public goods," but private goods that people pretend to want much more than they really do.  See Social Security and Medicare.
    政府主要的输出不是“公共物品”,而是那些人们想要更多的个人物品。比如社会保障和医疗保险。
  4. People rarely make the the most internally consistent argument for government action: paternalism.
    人民很少为政府行为作出一致认可:家长作风。
  5. The realistic path to freer markets isn’t "free-market reform," but austerity.
    让市场更自由的实际途径不是”市场自由改革“,而是减少政策干预。
  6. Democrats and Republicans are about as different as Catholics and Protestants – and 80% of the union of their mutual recriminations is true.
    民主党和共和党就像天主教徒和新民教徒一样是不同的。80%以上联盟的相互指责是正确的。
  7. Before you study public opinion, you wonder why policy isn’t far better.  After you study public opinion, you wonder why policy isn’t far worse.
    在你做民意调查之前,你要想到为什么政策不能更好。调查之后,你要知道为什么政策不那么糟糕。
  8. Big reasons why democracy isn’t worse: Unequal participation, political slack, and status quo bias.
    为什么民主没那么糟糕的最大的原因:不公平的参与,政治的疏漏和现状的偏见。
  9. Libertarians are the dhimmis of democracy.
    自由主义者是民主的受保护者。
  10. Despite everything, life in First World democracies is amazingly good by world and historic standards and will keep getting better.  So cheer up.
    尽管这一切,第一世界的民主对于世界和历史标准来说仍然是相当好的,并且会越来越好,所以,振作起来。

Life 生活

  1. Life is a gift, and the more the better.
    生活就像礼物,越多越好。
  2. "Do what you love and you’ll never work a day in your life."  Yep.
    ”做你想做的,你的生活中就不会有工作“,是的。
  3. Be friendly as a matter of policy.  Turn the other cheek in the face of ad hominem attacks.  It might seem crazy, but it works.
    在问题上友好。面对广告时,侧一下你的脸。它似乎很疯狂,但很有用。
  4. Obsessiveness is an powerful solution for physical and social problems.  Unfortunately it’s also a major cause of emotional problems.
    痴迷在物理和社会问题上是一个强大的解决方案。不幸的是,它是情感困惑的主要原因。
  5. Once you’re an adult, religious people will leave you alone if you leave them alone.
    当你成年以后,大家将会孤立你,如果你孤立大家的话。
  6. People vary more widely than you think.  Tell yourself it’s nobody’s fault.
    人的不同远比你想象的更厉害。告诉自己,那不是他们的错误。
  7. Selection is the key to social harmony.  Surround yourself with true friends who love you just as you are.  If you don’t see any around, quest for them.
    社会和谐选择是关键。选择他们爱你你也爱他们的真正的朋友相处。如果你周围还没有这样的人,去追寻。
  8. Raise your children with kindness and respect.  "I’m your parent, not you’re friend" is a reason to treat your kids better than their peers do, not worse.
    用善良和尊重教育你的孩子。”我是你的父母,不是你的朋友“是一个比他们同龄人对待你的孩子的更好的原因,而不会更糟。
  9. Your mind ages at a slower rate than you expect when you’re young, your body at a faster rate.
    你思想的年龄比你想象的要慢。你身体的年龄比你想象的要快。
  10. Evolutionary psychology is by far the best universal theory of human motivation.  Ignore it at your own peril.
    进化心理学是迄今为止最普遍的人类动机理论。所以请忽略你自己的危险。
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